July-2006 Primary MCQs
MCQs remembered from Exam oin 17 July 2006
Primary MCQ papers
Unclassified Physiol MCQs
Water movement across a capillary membrane due to hydrostatic pressure
E. Bulk Flow
I think the wording said "water movement across a semipermeable membrane due to a hydrostatic pressure gradient is due to?"
Which of the following would cause a high plasma potassium concentration?
- A. Aldosterone
- B. ADH?
- C. ?
- D. Metabolic acidosis
- E. Hypoglycaemia
Consequences of 2 litre blood loss in health man:
- A. Increased intravascular aborption of interstitial fluid
- B. Plasma oncotic pressure slowly increases
- C. Increased secretion of adrenalin by SNS
- D. Absorbtion of sodium in excess of water in kidneys
- E. ?
Mg++ is a cofactor for:
- A. Na-K-ATPase
- B. ?
AD12 Arterial Blood Gas Result:
- pH 7.56, HCO3 43, pCO2 53. Most likely?
- A. Mountaineer at altitude after a (week?)
- B. ?
- C. ?
- D. Hyperventilation
- E. Prolonged vomiting
AD18 Base excess:
- A. Metabolic acidosis?....
- B. Measured at pCO2 40mmHg
- C. At pH greater than 7.40 is negative
- D. Falls as HCO3 rises
- E. Difference between measured HCO3 and standard HCO3?
Addition of a resistance at end expiration of 10cmH2O in a healthy young man. After equlibration, which of the following is true:
A. FRC is unchanged
B. Expiratory effort required from intercostal muscles
C. Expiratory effort still derived from elastic forces from inspiration
D. ?No extra work is performed on inspiration
Yes, they did get the units for resistance wrong, making the question ambiguous. i thought there was also a work of breathing option???
NEW ??? Physiological dead space is not decreased by:
A. obesity / body size??
C. long smoking history
E. changing from erect to supine position.
I thought the question was, physiological dead space is decreased by
I thought is was "decreased by" too.
What is the alveolar pO2 in mmHG at 5,500m or atmospheric pressure 380mmHg in man with a aterial pCO2 of 40mmHg
Options were 20,30,40,50,60 I think.
Why would someone at 5,500m have a pCO2 of 40? It definately was in the question tho.
RE74 FEF 25-75%
- B. ? the same in restrictive & obstructive lung disease
- C. Is independent of expiratory effort
- D. Measured in the first half of expiration
- E. Relates(exact wording?) to FEV1
RE34 Oxygen toxicity may be seen: (similar to [RE41])
A. In CNS if breath 100% at 1 ATA for 24 hours
B. In lungs if breath 30% at 1 ATA for 48 hours
C. In CNS and lungs if breathe 100% oxygen for 48 hours
E. CNS toxicity seen with O2 concs far greater than 760mmHg
I thought the question was CNS and Pulmonary toxicity are caused at:
Work of expiration:
A. From inspiratory work against surface tension only
B. From inspiratory work against surface tension + elastic recoil
CO2 carriage: (old mcq)
A. 60% HCO3
B. 30% carbamino compounds
C. 15% dissolved
D. 90% HCO3
Pulmonary stretch receptors:
A. Located in chest wall muscles
B. Afferents via vagus
C. Show adaptation
D. Stimulation causes decrease in tidal volume
CV77 In a left ventricular pressure volume loop:
A. diastolic elastance curve represents change in pressure over change in volume (or something like this)
B. end systolic (pressure volume relationship) is an index of contractility
D. Afterload represented by?....end systolic pressure point
E. Another afterload or contractility question
I'm sure B was something incorrect like end systolic volume or end systolic point is an index contractility
CV79 Blood flow in exercise
A. Decreased blood flow to splanchnic system
B. Increases to all skeletal muscle (it did say skeletal)
C. Increased systemic vascular resistance
D. Skin blood flow does not change
E. Increased cerebral blood flow
CV72 In the cardiac action potential, the (plateau?) is due to
C. due to slow Ca channel?
D. due to K+ channel ?.....
CV69 ECG vs cardiac cycle
A. Isovolumetric contraction starts after QRS complex completed
B. T-wave starts with isovolumetric relaxation
C. QT interval from end of isovolumetric contraction to ???
D. ST segment begins at isovolumetric relaxation
E. P wave immediately before mitral valve opening
F. Peak of left atrial V wave corresponds to start of isovolumetric relaxation
CV70 The radial pressure wave differs form the aortic because
A. Systolic pressure lower
B. Diastolic pressure greater
C. Aortic mean pressure greater
D. Dicrotic notch more pronounced
E. Radial systolic pressure peaks earlier
CV61 Pulse pressure does not increase with: (old mcq)
A. Increased contractility
B. Increased stroke volume
C. Decreased diastolic BP
D. Increased aortic compliance
Which of the following scenarios is most likely to result in glycosuria
A. Increased GFR and Increased BSL
B. Decreased GFR and Increased BSL
C. Various combinations of GFR/BSL increase and decrease
?Renal handling of Urea?
D. 20% of filtered urea is excreted in urine
Not sure if it was the same question as above,
A. Synthesised via urea cycle to produce 3 ATP molecules (? per cycle)
B. Synthesised from ammonia (or was it ammonium??)
Creatinine is used to measure GFR because
A. Plasma levels corresponds to loss of nephrons
B. it is freely filtered, not secreted not reabsorbed
C. Levels start to rise when GFR decrease by 15%
D. it has a relatively constant level in plasma due to liver metabolism
E. Used to calculate creatinine clearance
Renal free water (? clearance, ? handling):
A. Measured by Uosm.V/Posm
Pretty sure it was clearance
GI22 Which of the following is absorbed via micelles? ((Miscelles aid the absorption of:)
A. vitamin D
C. Bile acids
D. Other options more readily identifiable as wrong
- A. Rarely occurs in patients not previously exposed
- B. Rh-D is the most uncommon (some % given)
- C. People with Rh-D are called Rh negative
- D. ?
- E. Foetal haemolytic anaemia caused by Rh-positive mother and Rh-negative baby
Primary antibody response to foreign antigen exposure:
- A. ?
- B. involves T cell expansion
- C. maximal at 2 weeks
- D. main production is IgE
- E. part of passive immunity
Regarding blood grouping
- A. Called this because of A, B, O antibodies
- B. O is the universal donor because they have both A and B antigens
- C. ?
- D. AB is the universal recipient as no plasma antibodies
- E. ?
Which of the following cause (vasocontriction?)
- A. NO
- B. prostacyclin?
- C. thromboxane?
BL34 Bilirubin metabolism:
- A. Bilirubin transferred to liver bound to albumen
- B. Stercobilinogen is excreted in the urine
- C. Liver conjugates bilirubin and secretes into circulation
- D. ?
- E. ?
ED32 Basal insulin secretion in an otherwise healthy person (70kg) :
- A. 10 U/hr
- B. 7 U/hr ?8
- C. 5 U/hr ?6
- D. 2 U/hr
- E. 1 U/hr
- I'm pretty sure the choices were 1 / 2 / 4 / 8 Units/Hr
- I'm pretty sure they were 1/2/6/10 units/hr!
New. Question regarding ammonia / ammonium conversion to urea in liver??
B.Ammonia converted to urea in liver?
D.Urea cycle produces 3 ATP molecules (? per cycle)
Old question. O2 consumption (or metabolic rate) increases least with:
B. Increase (? ambient/? body) temperature
C. Decreased temperature
D. Brain (CNS) activity
- A. Metabolism is autonomically mediated
- B. Insulates great veins of neck against temperature (? receptors ? changes)
- C. Metaboism leads to lots of heat and ATP production(, and ATP utilisation)
- D. ?
- E. ?
Can't remember the question - old
A. Phosphorylase in all cells
B. Glucagon increases liver & muscle phosphorylase
C. Adrenaline increases liver & muscle phosphorylase
The order of brainwave pattern change on moving from state of (heightened?) alert to deep sleep.
A. alpha - beta - delta - theta ?
B. alpha - delta-beta-theta?
C. beta - alpha - delta - theta
D. beta - alpha - theta - delta
E. theta - delta- alpha- beta ?
Which is (NOT?) an effect of alpha adrenergic receptor activation?
(veryy poorly remembered...)
C. increased cAMP levels?
I believe the one above specifically stated alpha-2 receptors
Which is not an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord
D. ?Nitric oxide
Similarity between cardiac and skeletal muscle?
Difference between cardiac and skeletal muscle:
A. Actin, myosin, tropomyosin
B. Fast Na+ channels
C. Fast Ca+ channels
D. Slow Ca+ channels
Muscle increases contractility first by: (or was is tension?)
A. Increase Ca+ in cells
B. Increase nerve fibre stimulation of motor units
C. Increasing number of motor units
D. Recruit fibres within motor units?
In a pregnant woman at term which of the following is true (compared to normal non pregnant state)
A. systemic vascular resistance increases 10%
B. systemic vascular resistance decreases 10%
C. no change to pulmonary vascular resistance
D. cardiac output increases 40%
(NB CO figure accurate but others may be totally wrong)
During pregnancy, which is not true
A. Tidal volume increases ?%
B. Minute ventilation increases 50%
C. Vital capacity increases 15%
D. Functional residual capacity decreases 30%
E. Respiratory rate does not change
New: Regarding the foetal circulation which is UNTRUE
A. systemic venous saturation ( or some such vague term) 28%
B. Mixed IVC SaO2 67%
C. 75% foetal cardiac output goes to placenta
D. Pulmonary artery pressure is higher than aortic.
E. Ductus venosus diverts blood from umbilical vein to IVC??
Foetal Hb, when compared to adult Hb:
A: 2 alpha and 2 delta chains
B: P50 is 19mmHg
C: More affinity for 2,3-DPG than HbA
D: (Something like), 85% converted by HbA by 6 months..?
[New] Relative humidity is defined as
- A. vapour content over vapour capacity
- B. other options sounding too specific eg amount of water vapour at 20 degrees celsius / 37 degrees celsius or specified ambient pressures
- C. total amount of water at ...??
- D. ?
Which is not an SI Unit?
E. Degrees celsius
Unclassified Pharm MCQs
The production of toxic metabolites with administration of nitric oxide is maximal under which circumstances?
A. FIO2 of greater than 80%
B. PEEP > 20 cmH2O
C. NO at 40 ppm
D. Rapid resp rate? (I forgot this one)/high frequency ventilation
E. Polycythaemia with Hb >19g/dL
CM03 With regard to oxygen:
A. The only gas that can reignite a glowing splint
B. Causes pulmonary (?oxygen toxicity/?hypertension) at less than 100 kPa
C. Some CNS toxicity occurs at 100 kPa
D. Medical grade is 95% pure
E. Produced commercially by hydrolysis of water
[July 06]The following compound is not degraded by Soda Lime
[July 06] Regarding 70% nitrous oxide:
A. 90% equilibration at 3 minutes
B. uptake of 10 liters at 90% equilibration
C. decreases muscle blood flow by 30%
D. Decreases cerebral autoregulation by 24%
E. produces surgical anaesthesia
Order of protein binding, from highest to lowest
D. Bupivicaine > lignocaine > procaine > prilocaine
E. Bupivicaine > procaine > prilocaine > lignocaine
A. with a pKa of 7.9 is 24% ionised at pH 7.4
B. has a clearance independent of liver blood flow.
Which drug has the longest (highest) ED95?
A. has a longer half life than neostigmine
OP28 [Jul-06] Which is NOT a side effect of morphine:
C. Respiratory depression
D. Histamine release
A. are present in all laminae of the spine.
CD24c [Jul06] Which one of the following selective beta blockers has a low extraction ratio and is predominantly excreted in urine?
An example of a beta-1 selective antagonist, with a plasma half-life of 6-7 hours, and renal elimination is:
A. May cause coronary steal (was it this q or one on GTN?)
B. Cyanide is converted to thiocyanate by rhodenese in the liver and kidney
[Jul06] Which of the following is true regarding vasopressin receptors:
A. V1a receptors are the most widespread
B. V2 receptors are located in the heart
C. V1b receptors are only located in the kidney
Which of the following agents has a prolonged duration of action in pseudocholinesterase deficiency?
Note: this question appeared twice in almost identical form on the paper.
With regards to Fresh frozen plasma, which is not true?
A. In treated to inactivate viruses
C. Has a high Sodium load
D. Contains all the factors necessary for coagulation excluding platelets
E. Is ineffective to treat ATIII deficiency
Which is true about a simple linear regression equation?
A. Line goes through origin.
B. Slope of line is zero
C. Line goes through the mean
D. Line describes a cause and effect relationship