Pharmacology SAQ Listing

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Question Coding
  • 1st 2 numbers: year SAQ was asked
  • Next value: 'A' for Mar-Apr paper; 'B' for Jul-Aug paper
  • Final no: Q number on paper

Example: '93B12" ->question 12 on Jul-Aug 1993 paper

EXCEPTION: old Qs just have the year listed (eg '1991')

Pharmacology MCQs | Physiology SAQ

Excellent external site with Primary SAQs answers: [Primary SAQs (Amanda Diaz)

A list of Primary FANZCA Short Answer Questions (Pharmacology SAQs). (The percentages are the pass rate for the question at that exam).

Contents

General Pharmacology

Pharmacodynamics

Pharm-12B03 Define the terms “tolerance” and “tachyphylaxis”. Discuss the different mechanisms by which tolerance can develop, giving examples where appropriate. 45%

Pharm-12B06 List agents that can reduce bronchiolar tone and explain the mechanisms of action with examples. 77%

Pharm-12A05 Using opioids as examples describe and illustrate with graphs what you understand by the terms "potency", "efficacy", "partial agonist", "competitive antagonist", and "therapeutic index".

Pharm-10A7 Briefly describe the pharmacological role of the nicotinic cholinergic receptor.

Pharm-09A7 Outline the subtypes of serotonin (5 hydroxytryptamine) receptors. Discuss pharmacological agents that act at these sites. 45%

Pharm-08A5 Classify drugs that alter activity at serotonin receptors with examples. Describe their mechanisms of action and clinical indications. 39%

Pharm-08A4 Outline the pharmacologic management of bronchoconstriction in acute severe asthma. Include mechanisms of action and potential adverse effects. 79%

Pharm-06A1 Outline the pharmacologic management of bronchoconstriction in acute severe asthma. Include mechanisms of action and potential adverse effects. 44%

Pharm-06A4 Describe the pharmacodynamic properties of propofol and how this influences its clinical usage.

Pharm-05B2 Using opioids as examples, describe and illustrate with graphs what you understand by the terms "potency", "efficacy", "partial agonist", "competitive antagonist" and "therapeutic index". (83% pass rate)

Pharm-04B1 Briefly describe how drugs produce their pharmacological effects. Illustrate each mechanism with examples. 67%

Pharm-03B3 Outline GABA's role as a neurotransmitter and indicate how its actions may be modified by pharmacological agents. 63%

Pharm-01A10 Outline GABA's role as a neurotransmitter and indicate how its actions may be modified by pharmacological agents 53%

Pharm-01A9 Briefly describe how drugs produce their pharmacological effects. Illustrate each mechanism with examples. 75%

Pharm-00B11 Describe the structure and function of G proteins 50%

Pharm-99XX Using opioids as examples describe and illustrate with graphs what you understand by the terms 'potency', 'efficacy', 'partial agonist', 'competitive antagonist' and 'therapeutic index'. 77%

Pharm-97A9 Briefly describe the pharmacological role of the nicotinic cholinergic receptor 62%

1997 Briefly describe the drug factors that may predispose to thrombophlebitis

Pharm-96B12 Briefly describe how drugs may produce their pharmacological effects. Illustrate each mechanism with examples. 30%

Pharm-96A16 Define therapeutic index and briefly outline its significance. Describe briefly also the therapeutic ratio and the use of the of the cardiac/cns toxicity ratio (cns = central nervous system) 79%

Pharm-95B9 Using opioids as examples, describe and illustrate with graphs what you understand by the terms potency, efficacy, partial agonist , competitive antagonist and therapeutic index. 70%

1994B2 Briefly explain non-competitive antagonism at receptor sites and give two examples

1994 Briefly describe the possible mechanism of action of general anaesthetics

1993 Briefly outline the chemistry of soda lime and the potential interactions with anaesthetic agents

Pharm-93A2 Define potency, affinity and efficacy illustrating your answer by reference to opioids in clinical use 84% [See also [[Pharm-95B9]

1991 Write short notes on log dose effect curves

Pharmacokinetics

Pharm-13A05 Discuss the concept of volume of distribution. How may it be used in the calculation of a loading dose? What assumptions are made in this calculation?

Pharm-11B2 What is meant by the term "two compartment model" in pharmacokinetics? Use Propofol as an example in explanation

Pharm-11A3 Outline the effects of liver failure on drug kinetics and dynamics.

Pharm-09B4 Describe the effect of obesity on pharmacokinetics and the potential clinical implications, providing relevant examples. 45%

Pharm-08B5 Outline how the pharmacokinetics of morphine, bupviacaine and suxamethonium differ in the neonate compared to the adult. Briefly describe the clinical implications of these differences. 73%

Pharm-03B8 Outline the pharmacological differences between neonates and adults with reference to sevoflurane, vecuronium and morphine. 42%

Pharm-07A3 Discuss factors contributing to inter-individual variability in the therapeutic response to opioid analgesic medications. 69%

Pharm-07A2 After epidural injection in a health term pregnant woman, discuss the factors influencing the distribution of bupivacaine to (a) the maternal CSF and spinal cord; (b) the maternal circulation; (c) the foetus. 46%

Pharm-06B3 Describe the factors which contribute to the inter-individual variability in drug response seen with intravenous anaesthetic induction agents. 42%

Pharm-05B4 Define the term ‘context sensitive half time’. How does it differ from the half-life typically quoted for a drug? Illustrate this concept by comparing thiopentone vs. propofol and fentanyl vs. remifentanil. 73%

Pharm-05A3 What factors may explain the inter-individual variability in drug response seen with intravenous anaesthetic induction agents? 26%

Pharm-04A5 Outline the effects of liver failure on drug kinetics and dynamics. 52%

Pharm-02B2 Briefly describe the factors affecting the uptake of orally administered medicines 67%

Pharm-02A10 Outline the factors that determine recovery (offset of action) after ceasing a drug infusion. 43%

Pharm-01B9 What do you understand by the term "clearance". Using propofol as an example, explain briefly the importance of clearance. 77%

Pharm-01A11 Define the term 'context-sensitive half time'. How does this differ from the elimination half life? Illustrate your answer by comparing thiopentone vs. propofol, and fentanyl vs. remifentanil 64%

Pharm-00A14 Discuss the roles of the plasma esterases on drugs used in anaesthesia 67%

Pharm-99B16 Outline the factors that determine recovery (offset of action) after ceasing a drug infusion. 55%

Pharm-98A13 Outline the factors that determine recovery (offset of action) after ceasing a drug infusion 37%

Pharm-97A10 What do you understand by the term 'clearance'? Using propofol as an example, explain briefly the importance of clearance

Pharm-96A13 Describe briefly the factors determining transdermal uptake of drugs and give some examples of drugs that can be administered by the transdermal route. Briefly outline the advantages and disadvantages of transdermal administration of drugs. 79%

Pharm-95B1 Describe the clearance of drugs by the kidney

Pharm-95B3 Give a brief account of drug protein binding and outline its significance

Pharm-95B8 Outline the factors that determine recovery (offset of effect) after ceasing a drug infusion. Explain the relevance of a drug’s elimination half time. 6%

Pharm-95A3 Define Phase I and Phase II reactions in drug metabolism. Provide examples with drugs used in anaesthesia. 70%

Pharm-95A2 Define a 'steady state' in pharmacology. List the advantages and disadvantages of a steady state and outline the characteristics of drugs which make them suitable for steady state pharmacology 65%

Pharm-95A4 Briefly describe the factors affecting the uptake of orally administered medicines 76%

1994 Discuss the ways in which the consequences of liver disease may influence drug disposition.

1992 Write short notes on binding of drugs to plasma proteins

1992 Write short notes on measurement of whole body drug clearance

1992 Write short notes on zero order kinetics

1992 Write short notes on Hepatic extraction ratios

1991 Write short notes on the clearance of drugs

1991 Write short notes on estimation of apparent volume of distribution of a drug

1991 Write short notes on binding of drugs to plasma proteins

1990 Define bioavailability. Discuss the factors which determine the bio-availability of a drug.

Other General Pharmacology

Pharm-13A03 Classify isomers. Briefly write an account of their significance in drugs used in anaesthesia.

Pharm-10B7 List the physical properties of oxygen. Discuss the potential adverse effects associated with oxygen administration. 67%

Pharm-06A2 What is an isomer? Briefly write an account of the types of isomers and their significance in drugs used in anaesthesia. 53%

Pharm-03A4 Outline the potential problems associated with additives used to make medicines suitable for intravenous injection. 43%

Pharm-00B15 Write brief notes on latex allergy 44%

Pharm-00B9 What is an isomer? Briefly write an account of the types of isomers and their significance in drugs used in anaesthesia 67%

Pharm-99B15 Briefly describe the preparation of oxygen for medical use. List the physical properties of oxygen. Outline the potential adverse effects associated with its medical use. 50%

Pharm-98B16 Write brief notes on latex allergy 30%

Pharm-95A5 What is an isomer? Briefly write an account of the types of isomers and their significance in drugs used in anaesthesia 55%

1992 Write short notes on chemical additives to anaesthetic solutions

Pharm-92A1 Discuss the factors which influence the administration and dosage of drugs in the elderly.

Inhalational Anaesthetic Agents

Pharm-13A06 Sevoflurane and fentanyl are a common anaesthetic drug combination. Discuss pharmacological reasons why it is useful to use them together.

Pharm-13A02 What are the advantages and disadvantages of xenon as an anaesthetic agent?

Pharm-12B02 Compare and contrast propofol and sevoflurane for maintenance of anaesthesia with respect to kinetics, cardiovascular and central nervous system effects. 22%

Pharm-12A02 In relation to the pharmacokinetics of nitrous oxide, describe the significance of partition coefficients, increasing inspired concentration, the second gas effect and diffusion hypoxia.

Pharm-11B1 Compare and contrast the clinically significant cardiovascular and central nervous system effects of desflurane and sevoflurane

Pharm-11A7 Describe the advantages and disadvantages of using nitrous oxide as part of a general anaesthetic.

Pharm-10B4 Briefly outline the effects of sevoflurane on skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscle tissues. Include how these effects are mediated and their clinical significance.

Pharm-10A3 Discuss the adverse effects that may occur with the administration of desflurane.

Pharm-09B1 Sevoflurane and fentanyl are a common anaesthetic drug combination. Discuss pharmacological reasons why it is useful to use them together. 30%

Pharm-09A1 Explain the concept of Minimal Alveolar Concentration (MAC) and its clinical utility. LIST the patient factors which: a) Increase MAC, b) Decrease MAC, c) Are known to have no effect on MAC.

Pharm-08B1 Outline the potential beneficial and adverse effects of isoflurane on the cardiovascular system (include mechanisms of effect) in patients with ischaemic heart disease. 41%

Pharm-08A1 An 80 year old woman is undergoing major emergency surgery. Describe the maintenance inhaled concentration of sevoflurane you would choose and the factors that might influence this.

Pharm-07B1 Describe the adverse effects that may occur with the administration of desflurane.

Pharm-06B2 Compare and contrast the clinically significant respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous system effects of desflurane and isoflurane. 70%

Pharm-06A3 List the non-ideal features of nitrous oxide.

Pharm-05B1 Describe how isoflurane is metabolised. In your answer give reasons why the overall extent of metabolism of isoflurane is so low. 44%

Pharm-04A1 Describe the effects of isoflurane on intracranial metabolism, intracranial haemodynamics, intracranial pressure and the EEG. 71%

Pharm-03B2 Describe the potential interactions of sevoflurane, desflurane and isoflurane with carbon dioxide absorbents. 60%

Pharm-03B1 Draw and label, on the same X - Y axis, FA/FI curves for the following halothane concentrations in oxygen, showing a 30 minute period from starting administration.

  • a. Halothane 1%, subject breathing spontaneously.
  • b. Halothane 6%, subject breathing spontaneously.
  • c. Halothane 6%, subject paralysed and ventilated.

With reference to the major factors determining the shape of FA/FI curves explain the differences between (a) and (b), and (a) and (c). 29%


Pharm-03A1 Briefly outline the effects of isoflurane on skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscle tissues. Indicate how these effects are mediated and their clinical significance. 74%

Pharm-02B4 Briefly outline the potential interactions between volatile agents and carbon dioxide absorbents 52%

Pharm-02B3 Draw a graph comparing the ratio of inspired to alveolar concentrations during the first half hour of administration for nitrous oxide, isoflurane, and halothane. Outline reasons for observed differences between the agents and indicate the effects of increases in alveolar ventilation and cardiac output. 73%

Pharm-01B10 Briefly describe the adverse effects of nitrous oxide. 76%

Pharm-01A12 Briefly describe the respiratory effects of the volatile agents 58%

Pharm-00A9 Compare and contrast the effects of halothane and isoflurane on the heart 65%

Pharm-99A14 Briefly outline the pharmacological effects of the volatile anaesthetic agents on the kidneys. 64%

Pharm-98A16 Outline the potential for methoxyflurane and sevoflurane to produce toxic effects on the kidney 75%

Pharm-97B14 Compare and contrast the effects on the heart of halothane and isoflurane 46%

Pharm-97A16 Discuss the possible effect of volatile inhalational agents on the liver

Pharm-96B11 Briefly outline the effects of volatile Inhalational agents on the muscle tissues, indicating postulated mechanisms and clinical significance. 43%

Pharm-96A9 Describe briefly the central nervous system effects of isoflurane

Pharm-96A12 Define MAC and outline the factors which influence it. Briefly explain MAC-hour, MAC-awake, MAC-bar and the applications of these terms 76%

Pharm-95B10 Draw a graph comparing the ratio of inspired to alveolar concentrations during the first half hour of administration for nitrous oxide, isoflurane and halothane. Outline the reasons for the observed differences between the agents and indicate the effects of non-concurrent increases in alveolar ventilation and cardiac output. 52%

Pharm-95A7 Explain briefly the potential advantages and disadvantages of SEVOFLURANE 82%

Pharm-95B5 Briefly outline the effects of the volatile agents on muscle tissues. Include a description of how these effects are mediated and their clinical significance. 55%

1993 Briefly outline the chemistry of soda lime and the potential interactions with anaesthetic agents

1993 Describe the direct effects of isoflurane on the cardiovascular system

1993 Explain how nitrous oxide may contribute to adverse anaesthetic outcome

Intravenous Anaesthetic Drugs & Antagonists

Pharm-13A07 Describe the pharmacology of midazolam.

Pharm-12A07 Discuss the suitability of ketamine as an intravenous anaesthetic agent.

Pharm-11A4 Describe the ideal properties of agnets used for sedation using two examples.

Pharm-10B6 Describe the princples of how a computer-controlled infusion device targets and maintains a constant effect site concentration of propofol. 73%

Pharm-10A4 Describe the time course between an intravenous injection of a general anaesthetic agent to loss of consciousness. Explain the delay using pharmacokinetic principles.

Pharm-09B2 What are the potential side effects of propofol and its formulations? 74%

Pharm-08B2 Describe the pharmacokinetic principles of total intravenous anaesthesia using propofol. 52%

Pharm-08A3 Describe the ideal pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of agents used for sedation. Outline the pharmacology of midazolam and propofol with reference to these ideal properties.

Pharm-07A7 Describe the pharmacology of midazolam including its mechanism of action. 66%

Pharm-07A4 Discuss the suitability of ketamine as a total intravenous anaesthetic agent in comparison with propofol. 25%

Pharm-06A4 Describe the pharmacodynamic properties of propofol and how this influences its clinical usage. 69%

Pharm-04B7 Outline the factors which influence the elimination half life of propofol. 29%

Pharm-03B4 Describe how a computer-controlled infusion device targets and maintains constant blood concentrations of propofol. 33%

Pharm-03A2 Outline the neuropharmacology of thiopentone, covering only its site of action, EEG changes, effects on cerebral blood flow and intracranial pressure. 80%

Pharm-02A16 Briefly outline the pharmacology of flumazenil. 45%

Pharm-02A11 Briefly outline the effects of thiopentone and ketamine not mediated via the central nervous system. 77%

Pharm-01A13 Outline the NON-ideal features as an intravenous induction agent of the current formulations of propofol 55%

Pharm-00B14 Write short notes contrasting the cardiovascular effects of propofol and ketamine seen clinically 46%

Pharm-99B14 Briefly outline the actions of intravenous induction agents not mediated via the central nervous system. 24%

Pharm-99A13 Describe the neuropharmacology of thiopentone covering its site of action, EEG changes, effects on cerebral blood flow and intracranial pressure. 78%

Pharm-98B9 Write short notes contrasting the cardiovascular effects of propofol and ketamine seen clinically. 63%

Pharm-98A10 Outline the NON-ideal features as an intravenous induction agent of the current preparation of propofol. 67%

Pharm-97B9 List the properties of an ideal intravenous anaesthetic. To what extent does methohexitone conform to this ideal. 76%

Pharm-95A9 Briefly outline the effects of intravenous induction agents not mediated via the central nervous system, as well as their side effects. Include a brief account of the mechanisms by which these side effects are exerted 17%

1994 Describe the ideal intravenous anaesthetic agent. Describe in detail the extent to which propofol approaches this ideal.

1993 Briefly explain how knowledge of the pharmacokinetic properties of propofol would enable it to be used for the induction and maintenance of anaesthesia by continuous infusion.

1992 Write short notes on Methohexitone

1991 Write short notes on Methohexitone

1990 Write short notes on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam

Opioid Agonists & Antagonists

Pharm-13A08 Discuss the metabolism of morphine, codeine and pethidine.

Pharm-12B04 Outline the acute adverse effects of opioid receptor agonists. Describe the mechanisms of the acute adverse effects of opioid receptor agonists. 55%

Pharm-11B6 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using morphine and fentanyl for post-operative Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA.

Pharm-11A6 Write a brief outline on the pharmacology of remifentanil. 55%

Pharm-10B1 Compare and contrast the pharmacokinetics of orally and intravenously administered morphine and oxycodone.

Pharm-09A5 Outline the effects of an opioid injected into the spinal intrathecal space.

Pharm-07B3 Outline the important pharmacological considerations concerning choice of opioid and dosage when converting from intravenous morphine to oral opioid analgesia in the post operative period.

Pharm-06A7 Briefly outline the pharmacology of naloxone.

Pharm-05A2 Outline the acute adverse effects of opioid receptor agonists. Describe the mechanism of the acute adverse effects of opioid receptor agonists.

Pharm-04A4 Outline the effects of an opioid injected into the spinal intrathecal space. 64%

Pharm-04B4 Write short notes on tramadol. 50%

Pharm-03A6 Explain how differences in the pharmacokinetics of alfentanil and fentanyl can influence the way they are administered intravenously. 51%

Pharm-02B6 Write brief notes on tolerance and dependence in relation to opioid analgesics. N/A

Pharm-01B12 Outline the effects of an opioid injected into the spinal intrathecal space 18%

Pharm-00B12 Explain how differences in the pharmacokinetics of alfentanil and fentanyl can influence the way they are administered intravenously 54%

Pharm-00A15 Describe the effects of opioids on the respiratory system 75%

Pharm-99A10 Write a brief outline on the pharmacology of remifentanil. 47%

Pharm-98B11 Describe briefly the acute unwanted effects of the opioid agonist drugs 53%

Pharm-97B15 Briefly outline the pharmacology of naloxone 57%

Pharm-96B9 Briefly explain the factors which determine the duration of effect of intravenously administered bolus doses of fentanyl. 70%

Pharm-96A11 Describe briefly the pharmacokinetics of pethidine. 60%

1993 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of administering narcotics by intermittent injection or by infusion.

1992 Write short notes on the cardiovascular effects of narcotics

1991 Write short notes on narcotics administered via the epidural route

Muscle Relaxants & Antagonists

Pharm-13A04 Describe how suxamethonium and non-depolarising neuromuscular blocking agents produce their adverse cardiovascular effects.

Pharm-12A04 Discuss factors influencing the recovery and reversal of neuromuscular blockade induced by rocuronium.

Pharm-11B8 Describe the terms train-of-four stimulation and double burst stimulation with respect to the peripheral nerve stimulator. Describe their advantages and disadvantages when used to evaluate non-depolarising neuromuscular blockade

Pharm-11A8 How may drugs enhance the action of non-depolarising neuromuscular blocking drugs at the neuro-muscular junction?

Pharm-10B5 Describe the pharmacodynamic effects and clinical uses of anticholinesterase drugs. 65%

Pharm-10A2 Describe the methods of determining depth of neuromuscular block and list the advantages and limitations of each. 64%

Pharm-09B5 Describe the factors that may decrease the clinical response to nondepolarising neuromuscular blocking agents. 36%

Pharm-09A3 Outline the factors that determine the rate of recovery from non-depolarising neuromuscular block. 38%

Pharm-08A7 Describe the terms train-of-four stimulation and double burst stimulation with respect to the peripheral nerve stimulator. Describe their advantages and disadvantages when used to evaluate non-depolarising neuromuscular blockade. 16%

Pharm-07B6 Describe how suxamethonium produces neuromuscular blockade. WHat is the mechanism of recovery of neuromuscular function and what mechanisms may be involved in Phase II block? 75%

Pharm-07A1 Describe the potential adverse effects of administering neostigmine post operatively. 68%

Pharm-06B4 Describe the advantages and disadvantages of rocuronium for rapid sequence induction. 28%

Pharm-06A6 Explain the possible mechanism for prolonged neuromuscular blockade after a four hour procedure using a non-depolarising muscle relaxant. 34%

Pharm-05A4 Outline the mechanism of action of drugs that inhibit cholinergic transmission at the neuromuscular junction giving examples. 59%

Pharm-04A2 Outline the factors determining speed of onset of neuromuscular blocking agents. 71%

Pharm-04B6 Compare and contrast neostigmine and the organophosphorus compounds. 52%

Pharm-03A8 Describe the onset and offset of neuromuscular block at the diaphragm, larynx and adductor pollicis after administration of 2.5 x ED95 dose of vecuronium. Comment on the differences observed. What are the clinical implications of these differences? 50%

Pharm-02B5 Outline the possible reasons for prolongation of paralysis induced by an intravenous dose of 1 mg.kg-1 of suxamethonium. Briefly indicate the consequences of such a prolonged block. 60%

Pharm-01B13 Compare and contrast neostigmine and the organophosphorus compounds. 64%

Pharm-01A14 Give examples of drugs that enhance the action of the non-depolarising neuromuscular blocking agents at the neuromuscular junction. Briefly describe the mechanisms of these interactions.

Pharm-00B16 Compare and contrast the pharmacology of atracurium and cis-atracurium 26%

Pharm-99B10 Outline factors determining speed of onset of neuromuscular blocking agents 58%

Pharm-99A12 Explain the phenomena known as fade and post tetanic facilitation associated with the use of neuromuscular blocking agents. 43%

Pharm-98B13 Draw and explain the characteristics of a log dose-response curve that describes the major clinical effect of vecuronium. List factors encountered in clinical practice that may alter this curve 46%

Pharm-98A15 Compare the metabolism of suxamethonium to that of atracurium. 83%

Pharm-97A12 Briefly describe the pharmacological actions of the anti-cholinesterases with reference to edrophonium, neostigmine and the organophosphorus compounds. Indicate the similarities and differences with the 3 drugs

Pharm-97B11 Give examples of drugs that enhance the action of the non-depolarising neuromuscular blocking agents at the neuromuscular junction. Briefly describe the mechanisms of their actions. 41%

Pharm-96B16 Outline briefly the possible reasons for prolongation of paralysis induced by an intravenous dose of 1mg/kg of suxamethonium. Briefly indicate the consequences of such a prolonged block. 58%

1994 Explain the use of the peripheral nerve stimulator in monitoring muscle relaxants and their offset.

1993 What factors may alter plasma cholinesterase activity and how can this activity be measured

1993 Briefly discuss the side effects of atracurium

1992 Write short notes on atracurium

1990 Write short notes on post tetanic facilitation

1990 Write short notes on dibucaine number

Local Anaesthetics

Pharm-12B08 Classify the toxic effects of local anaesthetic drugs. Detail the potential for, and mechanisms of, toxicity of prilocaine. 41%

Pharm-11A1 Describe the factors which increase the risk of systemic toxicity with amide local anaesthetic agents. 35%

Pharm-10A1 Describe how the chemical structure of local anaesthetic drugs determines their efficacy and safety. 36%

Pharm-09A2 Describe the factors which increase the risk of systemic toxicity with amide local anaesthetic agents. 31%

Pharm-08A6 A surgeon wishes to use topical anaesthetic in the nose before surgery in a 30 year old 70 kg man. He normally uses topical cocaine 5% plus lignocaine 2% with adrenaline 1: 100,000 injection. What volumes of cocaine 5 % and lignocaine can be used safely? What are the potential toxic effects of cocaine and how do lignocaine and adrenaline affect this? 19%

Pharm-07B5 Describe the factors which increase the risk of systemic toxicity with amide local anaesthetic agents. 37%

Pharm-06A5 Write short notes on factors affecting the speed of onset and durantion of effect of local anaesthetics when used to produce peripheral nerve block. 89%

Pharm-05B3 Write brief notes on the physico-chemical properties of lidocaine (lignocaine). 53%

Pharm-04A3 Briefly describe the factors that determine skin penetration of local anaesthetics. Briefly describe the formulation and pharmacology of EMLA cream. 60%

Pharm-04B2 Write a brief description of the pharmacology of ropivacaine. 46%

Pharm-03B7 Write short notes on factors affecting the speed of onset and duration of effect of local anaesthetics when used to produce peripheral nerve block. 46%

Pharm-03A3 Explain how lignocaine prevents the conduction of a nerve action potential. 37%

Pharm-02A9 Outline the toxicity of local anaesthetics 57%

Pharm-01B11 Describe the required pharmacological characteristics of local anaesthetic formulations intended for topical use. 41%

Pharm-00B13 Write short notes on factors affecting the speed of onset and duration of local anaesthetics when used to produce peripheral nerve block 54%

Pharm-00A16 Briefly describe the factors that determine skin penetration by local anaesthetics. What is a eutectic mixture? Briefly describe the formulation and pharmacology of EMLA® cream? 73%

Pharm-99B11 Outline the toxicity of local anaesthetics 36%

Pharm-98B15 Describe the pharmacology of ropivacaine and explain why it may be considered a safer agent than bupivacaine. 42%

Pharm-97A13 List the physico-chemical characteristics of bupivacaine. Explain how they influence its pharmaco-dynamic effects at the site of administration

Pharm-97B10 Describe the ideal pharmacological characteristics of local anaesthetic agents and formulation intended for topical use, including their clinical applications. 22%

Pharm-96B13 Outline briefly the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of lignocaine. 54%

1995 Outline factors that determine latency (speed of onset) of local anaesthetic drugs

1994 Compare and contrast ropivacaine and bupivacaine

1993 Outline the factors which would make a local anaesthetic agent suitable for use in obstetric practice 1993 Explain with the example of three local anaesthetic agents of your choice, how their physico-chemical properties influence their pharmacological effects

1992 Write short notes on the cardiovascular toxicity of bupivacaine

1991 Write short notes on transdermally administered local anaesthetic agents

1991 Write short notes on the cardiovascular toxicity of bupivacaine

Autonomic & Cardiovascular Drugs

Autonomic Pharmacology

Pharm-09A4 Compare and contrast atropine and glycopyrrolate. Discuss the clinical implications of these differences. 68%

Pharm-07A8 List the classes of drugs used clinically to treat chronic left ventricular failure. Outline their mechanisms of action. 65%

Pharm-06B1 Describe the use of different sympathomimetics to treat hypotension occurring as a result of subarachnoid block. Outline the advantages and disadvantages of these agents. 73%

Pharm-05A7 Outline the main biochemical events involved in noradrenergic transmission. Outline how these may be altered by the use of MAO (monoamine oxidase) inhibitors. 67%

Pharm-04A7 Describe the mechanism of action of inotropes and provide examples. 67%

Pharm-04B8 List the classes of drugs used clinically to treat chronic left ventricular failure. Outline their mechanisms of action. 25%

Pharm-00A11 Outline the main biochemical event involved in noradrenergic transmission, and how these may be altered by the use of MAO (mono amine oxidase) inhibitors 57%

Pharm-99A11 Briefly compare and contrast the clinical pharmacology of atropine, hyoscine and glycopyrrolate. 42%

Pharm-98A14 Discuss the use of different vasoconstrictors to treat hypotension occurring as a result of subarachnoid block 60%

Pharm-97A11 Outline the main biochemical event involved in noradrenergic transmission, and how these may be altered by the use of MAO (mono amine oxidase) inhibitors

1994 Give a brief account of the actions of the alpha-adrenergic agonists and their potential applications in anaesthesia

1990 Write short notes on pyridostigmine

Adrenoreceptor Drugs

Pharm-11B3 What is the mechanism of action of beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists? Outline the therapeutic uses and side effects of these drugs.

Pharm-08B3 List the anaesthetic related uses of clonidine. What are the effects of clonidine on the cardiovascular and central nervous system and how are theses effects mediated? 68%

Pharm-05B8 Describe the adverse effects of beta adrenoreceptor antagonists. 80%

Pharm-05A8 Outline the pathology of acute anaphylactic reactions with reference to the mediators released and their effects. Outline the role of epinephrine and its mechanisms of action in treating anaphylaxis. 43%

Pharm-03B6 List the potential clinical uses of an alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist and outline the limitations of clonidine for each. 60%

Pharm-02B7 Outline the potential pharmacological advantages and disadvantages of intra-operative beta-blockade. 76%

Pharm-01B15 Outline the potential benefits and disadvantages of peri-operative beta-blockade 47%

Pharm-01A15 Compare and contrast the pharmacology of esmolol and propranolol

Pharm-99A16 Describe the effects of the alpha 2 adrenoceptor agonists relevant to anaesthesia 63%

1991 Write short notes on Atenolol

Antihypertensives (incl Diuretics)

Pharm-12B05 Discuss the pharmacology of drugs that inhibit the activity of the renin-angiotensin system. What particular problems can occur in the anaesthetised patient taking these drugs? 35%

Pharm-11A5 List the classes of drugs that may be used to manage hypertensive crisis and briefly outline the mechanism of action. 11%

Pharm-08A2 List the classes of drugs that are useful in inducing diuresis clinically. Outline their mechanism of action. 38%

Pharm-08A8 Define the mechanisms of action and adverse effects of metoprolol, glyceryl trinitrate and diltiazem when used to manage myocardial ischaemia. 65%

Pharm-07B8 Write short notes on anti-hypertensive drugs that exert their action via blocking the effects of angiotensin. 73%

Pharm-04A6 Outline the circulatory effects of glyceryl trinitrate. 83%

Pharm-03A7 Classify diuretics, briefly explaining their mode of action. 88%

Pharm-00B10 Classify diuretics giving examples and briefly explaining their action 79%

Pharm-99B12 Briefly describe the mechanism and treatment of the toxicity of sodium nitroprusside. 48%

1994 Write about the pharmacology of captopril

1994 Give a brief account of the pharmacological actions and toxicity of nitric oxide

1994 Write about the pharmacology of nifedipine

1993 Compare and contrast nitroprusside and nitroglycerin

1993 What is meant by the term “calcium channel”? What are the effects of calcium channel blocking agents?

1991 Discuss the mechanisms of action of drugs which may be employed to lower blood pressure during anaesthesia.

Anti-arrhythmic Drugs

Pharm-10B3 Describe the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics and major side effects of intravenously administered amiodarone. 70%

Pharm-09A6 Describe the mechanism of action and pharmacokinetics of phenytoin.

Pharm-02A13 What are the side-effects of amiodarone and what problems may develop during concurrent anaesthesia? 44%

Pharm-96A15 Describe briefly the pharmacology of adenosine and its potential uses in anaesthesia. 65%

1993 What are the effects of calcium channel blocking agents

1990 Write short notes on calcium channel blocking agents

Miscellaneous Pharmacology

Anti-emetic Drugs

Pharm-09B3 Discuss classes of drugs that influence Post-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) including mechanisms where known. 77%

Pharm-05B7 Briefly outline the pharmacology of droperidol, emphasizing its mechanism of action, perioperative use and side effects. 61%

Pharm-05A1 Classify anti-emetic drugs. Give examples and describe side effects of each class. 65%

Pharm-98B10 Describe the sites of action of antiemetic agents used for postoperative nausea and vomiting 77%

Pharm-97B16 Describe the location and function of dopamine receptors. Give some examples of agonist and antagonist drugs. 73%

1994 Write about the pharmacology of Droperidol

1991 What are the properties of the ideal antiemetic? How might such a drug be evaluated clinically?

Drugs affecting Coagulation

Pharm-12B01 How does warfarin exert its anti-coagulant effect? What methods can be used to reverse the effects of warfarin prior to surgery? 64%

Pharm-11B5 Describe the mechanism of action of protamine when used to reverse the effects of heparin. Outline the side effects of protamine.

Pharm-08B7 List the agents used to therapeutically reduce platelet function. Outline their mechanism of action, adverse effects, mode of elimination and duration of action. 82%

Pharm-07B2 Outline the important pharmacological considerations when stopping warfarin and commencing prophylactic (low dose) low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) in the peri-operative period. 22%

Pharm-05A5 List the antiplatelet agents and outline their mechanism of action, adverse effects, mode of elimination and duration of action. 68%

Pharm-04A8 Describe briefly the side effects and complications of heparin therapy. 71%

Pharm-02A15 Describe the mechanism of the anticoagulant effect of coumarin derivatives and what determines the onset and offset of action. 45%

Pharm-99A15 List the drugs used clinically as anti-coagulants and anti-thrombotics. Write short notes on the mechanisms of their actions. 65%

Pharm-95B4 Outline the chemistry of heparin. Describe the mechanism of action and list its toxic effects. 58%

Pharm-95A8 Describe the mechanism of action of protamine when used to reverse effects of heparin. Outline the side-effects of protamine 43%

Pharm-95A10 Outline the importance of vitamin K and the factors determining its uptake 68%

1993 Discuss the pharmacology of drugs used in the control of blood coagulation.

1990 Discuss the pharmacology of drugs used therapeutically to alter coagulation

Obstetric Pharmacology

Pharm-12A01 Outline the pharmacology of agents used in the management of pregnancy induced hypertension. 15%

Pharm-09B6 Discuss the pharmacodynamics of drugs that affect uterine tone. 48%

Pharm-02B1 Outline the influences of pregnancy on pharmacokinetics. 39%

Pharm-00A12 Outline the pharmacology of oxytocin 77%

Pharm-96B14 Outline briefly the pharmacology of oxytocin 54%

Pharm-95B6 Outline the influence of pregnancy on pharmacokinetics 64%

1994 Give a brief account of the pharmacological actions and side effects of prostaglandins used in obstetrics

1992 Write short notes on placental transfer of drugs

Gastrointestinal Pharmacology

Pharm-12A03 Classify the drugs which are useful for reducing the volume and acidity of gastric contents, giving an outline of the mechanism of effect for each group. 54%

Pharm-05A6 Briefly outline pharmacological methods of reducing gastric acidity. Indicate the mechanisms of action and the advantages and disadvantages of each method. 72%

Pharm-02A14 Briefly outline pharmacological methods of reducing gastric acidity. Indicate the mechanisms of action and their advantages and disadvantages of each method 59%

Pharm-98A12 Classify the drugs which are useful for reducing the volume and acidity of gastric contents, giving an outline of the mechanism of effect for each group. 46%

Pharm-96B15 Briefly give an account of the pharmacological methods for reducing gastric acidity. Indicate the mechanisms and their advantages and disadvantages. 51%

NSAIDs / Paracetamol

Pharm-12A06 List the side effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Briefly explain the mechanisms responsible for each of these side effects.

Pharm-11B4 Describe the pathogenesis and management of paracetamol toxicity.

Pharm-10A5 Describe how Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs exert their clinical effects. Outline the advantages and disadvantages in using COX-2 selective agents.

Pharm-06B8 Describe the pathogenesis and management of paracetamol toxicity. 86%

Pharm-06B5 Briefly explain the mechanisms responsible for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) – induced side effects. Outline the advantages and disadvantages of selective cyclooxygenase (COX 2) inhibitors. 62%

Pharm-03B5 Describe the pharmacological effects of paracetamol. Outline its toxicity and management. 86%

Pharm-02A12 Outline the mechanism of action of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and their potential adverse effects 72%

Pharm-00A10 Briefly describe the pharmacological effects of paracetamol. Outline the mechanisms for its toxicity. 70%

Pharm-97B12 Outline the mechanism of action of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and their potential adverse effects 65%

1995 Briefly describe the pharmacological effects of paracetamol. List its clinical indications and outline the mechanisms for its toxicity.

1993 Write about the pharmacology of ketorolac

Unclassified Drugs

Pharm-13A1 What are the major classes of oral hypoglycaemic agents? Outline their mechanisms of action and possible side effects.

Pharm-11B7 Briefly outline the acute management of malignant hyperthermia (during a relaxant general anaesthetic). Describe the important aspects of dantrolene pharmacology relevant to treating malignant hyperthermia.

Pharm-11A2 Classify non-opoid drugs used for the treatment of neuropathic pain and indicate proposed mechanisms of analgesic action and potential adverse effects. 35%

Pharm-10B2 Describe the composition of 4% albumin and Normal Saline. Compare and contrast the pharmacology of each. 67%

Pharm-10A6 List the main drug groups used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. For each group explain the mechanism of action and give examples. 60%

Pharm-10A8 Classify drugs used in the treatment of depression. Outline the interactions between antidepressant drugs and drugs that are commonly used during the perioperative period. 32%

Pharm-09B7 Outline the pharmacological management of ventricular fibrillation in an adult with reference to: drugs, dose, mechanisms of action, and potential adverse effects. 51%

Pharm-08B4 Briefly outline the pharmacology of ketamine with references to its use as an analgesic agent in the post-operative period. 60%

Pharm-08B6 Outline the ideal properties of a colloid intravenous fluid. Gives examples of colloids and briefly describe features of each. 41%

Pharm-07B7 Outline the mechanisms of action and potential adverse effects of the oral hypoglycaemic agents. 47%

Pharm-07A6 Briefly outline the acute management of malignant hyperthermia (during a relaxant general anaesthetic). Describe the important aspects of dantrolene pharmacology relevant to treating malignant hyperthermia. 54%

Pharm-07A5 Classify non-opioid drugs used for the treatment of neuropathic pain and indicate proposed mechanisms of analgesic action and potential adverse effects. 34%

Pharm-06B7 Outline the drug and non-drug treatment of ventricular fibrillation in an adult. Briefly describe their mechanisms of action. (Do not discuss basic life support, airway therapies and oxygen) 44%

Pharm-05B5 Outline the advanced life support of ventricular fibrillation in an adult including the mechanism of action and potential adverse effects of these therapies. (Do not discuss basic life support, airway therapies and oxygen). 11%

Pharm-05B6 Discuss the therapeutic and unwanted effects of dexamethasone. 67%

Pharm-04B3 List the effects of histamine. Write a brief outline on the pharmacology of the H1 blocking drugs. 26%

Pharm-02B8 Outline the pharmacological effects of vasopressin 79%

Pharm-01B14 Outline the direct effects of endogenously released histamine. 49%

Pharm-98A11 Briefly describe the pharmacological implications of the administration of a single dose of gentamicin during anaesthesia. 75%

Pharm-98A9 List the effects of histamine. Write a brief outline on the pharmacology of the H1 blocking drugs. 62%

Pharm-96A10 Describe briefly the mechanism of action of dantrolene. List it adverse effects and outline its uses in anaesthesia. 64%

1994 Compare the advantages and disadvantages of synthetic colloids and stable plasma protein solution in volume replacement.

Statistics

Pharm-12B07 Some sets of information, for example the visual analogue scale used in pain assessment, can be treated as parametric or non-parametric data. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using each method? In each case, which tests can be used to analyse the data? 7%

Pharm-12A08 Discuss the statistical methods which can be used for analysis of groups of categorical data. 20%

Pharm-10B8 Discuss the statistical methods which can be used for analysis of groups of categorical data. 15%

Pharm-09B8 Mean arterial blood pressure has been measured in two groups of patients one hour after the administration of either a placebo or an antihypertensive drug. Explain how these data could be analysed. 35%

Pharm-09A8 What is meant by the term "95% confidence interval"? Explain the practical applications of confidence intervals and indicate why they may be preferred to p-values.

Pharm-08B8 What is meant by the term Randomised Control Trial (RCT)? What are the strengths and weaknesses of randomised control trial design? 72%

Pharm-07B4 A new clinical test called the "intubation score" has a reported 90% sensitivity and 70% specificity when used to predict difficult intubation. Describe how the accuracy, predictive value and clinical utility of this test can be evaluated. How will the incidence of difficult intubation affect the performance of this test? 43%

Pharm-06B6 A new clinical test called the "intubation score" has a reported 90% sensitivity and 70% specificity when used to predict difficult intubation. Describe how the accuracy, predictive value and clinical utility of this test can be evaluated. How will the incidence of difficult intubation affect the performance of this test? 34%

Pharm-06A8 In a clinical trial, why is adequate power important? What factors affect the determination of an adequate sample size? 46%

Pharm-04B5 What are the strengths and weaknesses of the randomised controlled trial (RCT) study design? 49%

Pharm-03A5 Outline the important statistical issues in designing a study to compare the duration of analgesia of two drugs given for post-operative pain relief. 38%

Pharm-01B16 Briefly describe correlation and simple linear regression, and explain their differences. What assumptions are common to both? 82%

Pharm-01A16 Describe the use of the null hypothesis and P-value in a drug trial 89%

Pharm-00A13 Briefly describe correlation and simple linear regression, and explain their differences. What assumptions are common to both? 70%

Pharm-99B9 What is meant by '95% confidence interval'? Explain the practical applications of confidence intervals and indicate why they may be preferred to P-values. 48%

Pharm-99A9 In a clinical trial why is adequate power important? What factors affect the determination of an adequate sample size? 58%

Pharm-98B12 Briefly describe the terms correlation and simple linear regression, and explain their differences. What assumptions are common to both? 34%

Pharm-97A14 What is meant by '95% confidence interval'? Explain the practical applications of confidence intervals and indicate why they may be preferred to P-values. 30%

1997 In a clinical trial why is adequate power important? What factors affect the determination of an adequate sample size? 35%

Pharm-96B10 Describe briefly the use of the NULL HYPOTHESIS in a drug trial and how the P-value is relevant 62%

Pharm-96A14 Explain briefly the differences between simple linear regression and correlation and indicate the assumptions common to both.

Pharm-95B7 What is meant by '95% confidence interval'? Explain the practical applications of confidence intervals and indicate why they may be preferred to P-values. 33%

Pharm-95A6 Describe the NULL HYPOTHESIS in a drug trial and how the P-value is relevant 53%

1994 Define Standard Deviation. Explain its application to the use of drugs in clinical anaesthetic practice.

1992 Write short notes on Student’s "t" test

1991 Write short notes on bias in drug trials and how its influence may be reduced.

1991 Write short notes on non parametric statistical tests.

1990 Write short notes on probability

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