Physiology SAQ Listing

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Question Coding
  • 1st 2 numbers: year SAQ was asked
  • Next value: 'A' for Mar-Apr paper; 'B' for Jul-Aug paper
  • Final no: Q number on paper

Example: '93B12" ->question 12 on Jul-Aug 1993 paper

EXCEPTION: old Qs just have the year listed (eg '1991')

Physiology MCQs | Pharmacology SAQ

Excellent external site with Primary SAQs answers: Primary SAQs (Amanda Diaz)

This is a LIST of Primary FANZCA Short Answer Questions (Physiology SAQs). (The percentages are the pass rate for the question at that exam).

If you would like to add in some notes or a "model answer" for any SAQ, then just click on the question code and add your comments on that page.

Contents

Basic Physiology

  • Physiol-12A12 Describe the main mechanisms by which chemical neurotransmitters exert their effects, using examples from the autonomic nervous system.
  • Physiol-11B9 Outline the physiological roles of prostaglandins in the body.
  • Physiol-10A16 Describe the processes whereby substances may cross cell membranes, giving examples. 60%
  • Physiol-06A12 Classify and describe the main cellular and molecular mechanisms by which chemical neurotransmitters exert their effects. Use examples from cholinergic and adrenergic neurotransmission to illustrate the answer. 42%
  • Physiol-04B15 Describe the mechanism of action of G-proteins in the cell (60% pass rate)
  • Physiol-01B5 Describe the structure and function of voltage gated ion channels 59%
  • Physiol-98B7 Briefly describe structure of mitochondria. Outline the metabolic processes that occur in mitochondria 64%
  • Physiol-97B2 Describe the mechanism of action of G proteins in the cell 47%
  • Physiol-97A1 Describe the structure and function of voltage sensitive ion channels
  • Physiol-93B3 Briefly describe role of intercellular tight junctions
  • Physiol-93A2 What are 'membrane channels'? How are they investigated? Describe one commonly interfered with in Anaesthesia
  • Physiol-91** Write short notes on the Endoplasmic Reticulum

Fluid & Electrolyte Physiology

Physiol-09A11 Outline the determinants and regulation of extracellular fluid volume. 53% Same as Physiol-01A1

Physiol-05B12 Briefly discuss the physiological roles of plasma proteins. 29%

Physiol-05A11 Describe how the body detects and responds to a water deficit. 41% Same as Physiol-01A7

Physiol-01A7 Describe how the body detects and responds to a water deficit 50%

Physiol-01A1 Outline the determinants and regulation of extracellular fluid volume 68%

Physiol-98B6 Briefly discuss the physiological roles of plasma proteins 55%

Physiol-96A7 In the diagram (in question link) indicate how the solvent and solute move across a semipermeable membrane and give a brief explanation of the principles involved. 70%

Physiol-95B5 Outline the effects of IV administration of 500 mls of 20% mannitol, and the potential problems associated with its use.

1995 Explain how a metabolic alkalosis develops in an adult patient with a small bowel obstruction and nasogastric losses in excess of 1000ml per day for 5 days. Give a brief account of the physiological principles determining fluid replacement.

1994 Outline the effects of a rapid injection of 100mls of hypertonic Iodine-containing angiography contrast medium in an otherwise healthy adult.

1994 Compare the advantages and disadvantages of synthetic colloids and SPPS in volume replacement

1992 Write short notes on serum calcium

1992 Write short notes on osmoreceptors

1990 Write short notes on the regulation of calcium

Acid-Base Physiology

Physiol-10B15 Discuss the role of haemoglobin as a buffer. 27%

Physiol-08A11 Outline the physiological consequences of diabetic keto acidosis. 57%

Physiol-07A11 Discuss how the body handles a metabolic acidosis. 57%

Physiol-06B15 Explain how a metabolic acidosis develops in hypovolaemic shock. Describe the consequences of this metabolic acidosis for the body. 53%

Physiol-05A15 Discuss how the body handles a metabolic acidosis. 38%

Physiol-03A9 Explain the role of haemoglobin as a buffer. 38%

Physiol-95B8 Outline the physiological consequences of hyperosmolar diabetic ketoacidosis 39%

Physiol-98B5 Explain how metabolic acidosis develops in hypovolaemic shock. Describe the consequences of metabolic acidosis to the body. 55%

Physiol-95A6 Describe the effects of intravenously administered sodium bicarbonate (8.4%) 100ml used in asystolic cardiac arrest in a 70 kg man 46%

1995 Explain how a metabolic alkalosis develops in an adult patient with a small bowel obstruction and nasogastric losses in excess of 1000ml per day for 5 days. Give a brief account of the physiological principles determining fluid replacement.

1992 Write short notes on Haemoglobin as a buffer

1990 Write short notes on extracellular buffers

Respiratory Physiology

Control of Respiration

Physiol-06A10 List the physiological factors which increase respiratory rate. Include a brief explanation of the mechanism by which each achieves this increase. 62%

Physiol-02B10 List the physiological factors which increase respiratory rate. Include a brief explanation of the mechanism by which each achieves this increase. 55%

Physiol-95B9 List physiological factors which increase respiratory rate and include a brief explanation of the mechanism by which each achieves this increase. 40%

1993 Write brief notes on breathlessness in exercise.

Mechanics of Breathing

Physiol-11A13 Describe the determinants of work of breathing in an adult human at rest.

Physiol-10B12 Describe the function of the muscles involved in ventilation. 39%

Physiol-10B9 Describe the factors that affect respiratory system compliance. 31%

Physiol-10A14 Describe the factors that affect static respiratory system compliance. 36%

Physiol-08B13 Explain the concept of time constants and relate these to "fast" and "slow" alveoli. 40%

Physiol-06B10 Describe the determinants of work of breathing in an adult human at rest. 62%

Physiol-03B13 Describe the factors that affect airways resistance. 64%

Physiol-03A14 Describe the factors that affect lung compliance. 39%

Physiol-01B2 Describe the determinants of work of breathing in an adult human at rest. 72%

Physiol-00A5 Describe the important determinants of work of breathing in an adult human at rest. Explain how to minimise work of breathing 50%

Physiol-99B3 Describe the factors that affect airway resistance 60%

Physiol-98B8 Briefly describe the factors that affect airway resistance 11%

1991 Short notes on work of breathing

1991 Short notes on measurement of transpulmonary pressure

1990 Short notes on lung compliance

Pulmonary Gas Volumes and Ventilation

Physiol-05B16 Explain the changes on Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) that take place with the administration of anaesthesia. 48%

Physiol-03B11 Briefly describe the potential causes of a difference between measured end-tidal and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide. 43%

Physiol-00B3 Draw an expiratory flow volume curve for a forced expiration from total lung capacity.

Describe its characteristics in people with normal lungs, as well as those with obstructive and restrictive lung disease. 77%

Physiol-98A2 Draw a flow/volume curve for a maximum forced expiration in a person with healthy lungs from: (a) Total lung capacity; (b) Function Residual capacity. Explain your curves 61%

Physiol-97B7 Explain the factors influencing the distribution of ventilation during the inhalation of 500ml of air from Functional Residual Capacity in the erect posture 56%

Physiol-96B6 Draw a respiratory flow/volume loop and outline how it is obtained. Briefly explain the physiological mechanisms involved in the concept of flow limitation. 51%

Physiol-96B7 Explain differences between measured end-tidal and arterial partial pressures of C02 67%

1995 What is the end tidal C02? How does it differ from arterial C02 tension and the mixed expired C02 tension? What factors influence its value?

1990 Write short notes on physiological dead space

Ventilation Perfusion Inequalities

Physiol-07A9 Define 'Venous Admixture'. Briefly explain how venous admixture influences arterial 02 tension and how an increase in inspired 02 concentration may affect this. 43%

Physiol-02A3 Define 'Venous Admixture'. Briefly explain how venous admixture influences arterial 02 tension and how an increase in inspired 02 concentration may affect this. 46%

Physiol-97A7 Compare the effect on arterial blood C02 and 02 levels of ventilation/perfusion inequalities

Physiol-95B1 Define 'Venous Admixture'. Briefly explain how venous admixture influences arterial 02 tension and how an increase in inspired 02 concentration may affect this. 34%

Gas transport in the Blood

Physiol-11B12 Outline the similarities and differences between myoglobin and adult haemoglobin, explaining the physiological relevance of the differences. 24%

Physiol-11A9 Describe the ways in which CO2 is carried in blood.

Physiol-10A9 Explain the physiological factors that may lead to a decrease in mixed venous blood oxygen saturation. 30%

Physiol-09A16 Outline the effects of acute exposure to air at an altitude where barometric pressure is 347mmHg. What compensatory mechanisms occur with gradual exposure to increasing altitude? 48%

Physiol-07B10 Discuss factors which affect the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in mixed venous blood. 38%

Physiol-05A12 Describe the physiological factors influencing the carbon dioxide tension in arterial blood. 38%

Physiol-04B9 Describe how carbon dioxide is produced in the body. How does it move from the site of production to the pulmonary capillary? 60%

Physiol-04A11 What is 2,3, DPG? How is it produced in the red blood cell and how does it interact with haemoglobin? What is its relevance in altitude exposure, anaemia and stored blood? 84%

Physiol-03B12 Explain the difference between perfusion limitation and diffusion limitation in the transfer of gas between alveolus and pulmonary capillary. Outline the factors that determine whether gas transfer is perfusion or diffusion limited. 45%

Physiol-02A1 Explain how oxygen supply of organs is maintained during isovolaemic haemodilution. 45%

Physiol-00A2 Briefly describe the factors that influence the partial pressure of oxygen in mixed venous blood 56%

Physiol-99B5 Describe the ways in which CO2 is carried in the blood 55%

Physiol-99A3 Describe the factors that affect the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide form the alveolus to the blood. 44%

Physiol-97A3 Describe the role of haemoglobin in the carriage of carbon dioxide in the blood 59%

Physiol-96B8 Briefly explain how an oxygen debt arises and how the body deals with it 75%

Physiol-96B5 Explain briefly how oxygenation of organs can be maintained during isovolaemic haemodilution. 66%

Physiol-96A1 List the normal values for mixed venous blood gases and briefly explain the factors determining mixed venous oxygen tension.

Physiol-95A1 What is 2,3, DPG? How is it produced in the red blood cell and how does it interact with haemoglobin? What is its relevance in altitude exposure, stored blood and anaemia?

1993 What factors influence the mixed venous C02 tension. Briefly explain how these factors exert their influence.

1991 Write short notes on 2,3 diphosphoglycerate (DPG)

Pulmonary Circulation

Physiol-12B16 Briefly outline the differences between the pulmonary circulation and the systemic circulation. 69%

Physiol-05B9 Describe the gravity dependent processes which affect pulmonary blood flow. What changes take place when the pressure increases in the pulmonary vessels? 82%

Physiol-04A9 Briefly outline the differences between the pulmonary circulation and the systemic circulation 26%

Physiol-02A4 Outline the physiological factors that influence pulmonary vascular resistance 57%

Physiol-00A3 What is a normal value for pulmonary vascular resistance? Outline physiological factors that influence pulmonary vascular resistance 49%

Physiol-97A2 Describe the gravity dependent processes which affect pulmonary blood flow. What changes take place when the pressure increases in the pulmonary vessels? 67%

1995 Briefly outline the differences between the pulmonary and systemic circulation

Other Respiratory Physiology

Physiol-12B12 Discuss the physiological causes of early post-operative hypoxaemia. 28%

Physiol-11B14 Describe the changes in respiratory function tests that occur with long term increases in small airways resistance. 12.5%

Physiol-08B15 Describe the changes that occur with ageing that can affect oxygen delivery to the tissue during moderate exercise. 14%

Physiol-08A16 Discuss the physiological causes of early post-operative hypoxaemia. 13%

Physiol-05A13 Describe the non-respiratory functions of the lung. 56%

Physiol-04A12 What are the physiological consequences of decreasing functional residual capacity by one litre in an adult? 50%

Physiol-01B1 Explain the effects of intermittent positive pressure ventilation on left ventricular output. 55%

Physiol-01A8 What are the physiological consequences of decreasing functional residual capacity by one litre in an adult? 62%

Physiol-98A1 Explain the effects of intermittent positive pressure ventilation on left ventricular output 38%

Physiol-96B3 Explain briefly the effects of intermittent positive pressure ventilation on left ventricular output. 31%

Cardiovascular Physiology

Electrical Properties of the Heart

Physiol-11B11 Describe the ionic basis for automaticity of cardiac pacemaker cells. 69%

Physiol-02A2 Draw a labelled diagram of a cardiac action potential highlighting the sequence of changes in ionic conductances. Explain the terms 'threshold', 'excitability', and 'irritability' with the aid of a diagram. 56%

Physiol-95B4 Draw a labelled diagram of a cardiac action potential highlighting the sequence of changes in ion conductances. Explain the terms 'threshold', 'excitability' and 'irritability' with the aid of a diagram. 39%

1993 Briefly discuss the interaction of the action potential duration and conduction velocity in the ventricular myocardium and its effect on myocardial performance

Determinants and Control of the Cardiac Output

Physiol-11A10 Describe the factors that oppose left ventricular ejection. 25%

Physiol-09B9 Classify the causes of hypotension in the early post-operative period, giving relevant examples. 37%

Physiol-09A13 What is the Frank-Starling mechanism and describe its relationship to excitation contraction coupling. 21%

Physiol-07A13 Describe the determinants of Venous Return and the effect general anaesthesia would have on these. 60%

Physiol-06B9 Describe the factors that oppose left ventricular ejection. 14%

Physiol-04B10 List the physiological factors which affect left atrial pressure and explain their effects (19% pass rate)

Physiol-02B9 Draw a pressure volume loop for a left ventricle in a normal adult. Outline the information that can be obtained from such a loop. 67%

Physiol-96A3 Draw a pressure volume loop for a left ventricle in a healthy adult and state the normal pressures and volumes. Outline the information which can be obtained from a pressure volume loop and how such a loop can be constructed.

1995 Draw and label a left atrial pressure trace against time. List the physiological factors which effect left atrial pressure and explain their effects. 68%

1993 Quote Starling's law of the heart. Outline the factors that determine the right ventricular end diastolic volume

Physiol-1990-a Discuss the relationship between cardiac output and venous return. Include factors that determine the magnitude of both.

Peripheral Vascular System

Physiol-08B14 Explain in physiologic terms the effect of severe aortic stenosis on myocardial oxygen supply and demand. 45%

Physiol-04B16 Explain the physiological processes involved in the development of interstitial oedema 76%

Physiol-04A10 Describe the vasoactive substances released by the endothelium. Explain the role they play in regulating blood flow through the peripheral circulation. 65%

Physiol-01B8 Explain the physiological processes involved in the development of interstitial oedema 46%

Physiol-01A6 Describe the substances released by the endothelium. Explain the role they play in regulating blood flow through the peripheral circulation 72%

Physiol-99B8 Draw both aortic root and a radial artery pressure wave forms on the same axes. Explain the differences between them. 50%

Physiol-99A8 Explain the significance of plasma oncotic pressure in capillary fluid dynamics. 75%

Physiol-97B1 Explain the local effects of a decrease on plasma colloid osmotic pressure in the skeletal muscle capillary bed 64%

1994 Briefly discuss the factors that influence the rate of blood flow through a capillary bed

1994 Describe the relationship between vascular tone and tissue oxygenation

1993 Briefly discuss the humoral factors that control blood pressure

1991 Give an account of the Starling forces within the capillary circulation. Include specific reference to the pulmonary and glomerular capillaries.

Control of Circulation

Physiol-12A09 Describe the role of baroreceptors in the control of systemic arterial pressure. 63%

Physiol-10A13 Describe the autonomic innervation of the heart and the effects of autonomic stimulation on cardiac function. 47%

Physiol-07B9 Describe the cardiovascular response to central neural blockade. 42%

Physiol-06A9 Outline the systemic cardiovascular response to exercise. 71%

Physiol-05B15 Describe the autonomic innervation of the heart and the direct effect of autonomic stimulation on the heart. 43%

Physiol-05A14 Describe the compensatory mechanisms in a fit person moving from the supine to the standing position. 52%

Physiol-03B10 Describe the role of baroreceptors in the control of systemic arterial pressure. 57%

Physiol-00B1 Describe the role of baroreceptors in the control of arterial pressure 54%

Physiol-99A7 Describe the autonomic innervation of the heart and the direct effect of autonomic stimulation on the heart. 59%

Physiol-98B2 Describe the compensatory mechanism in a fit person moving from the supine to the erect position 63%

Physiol-94B1 On arising from the horizontal position, in a normal gravitational field, a series of reflex adjustments follows which results in a redistribution of blood volume and body water. DISCUSS the physics and physiology involved. 54%

Physiol-94B2 Explain the cardiovascular responses to a Valsalva manoeuvre maintained for 30 seconds. What can be learnt about cardiovascular function from observing these responses?

1993 Briefly discuss the humoral factors that control blood pressure.

1992 Write short notes on volume receptors

Regional Circulations

Physiol-12B09 Describe the waveforms and pressures that are seen in each anatomical location during insertion of a pulmonary arterial catheter. What factors may increase these pressures?

Physiol-12A16 Describe the factors involved in the balance between left ventricular myocardial oxygen supply and demand. 54%

Physiol-10B10 Discuss the factors that influence coronary blood flow. 28%

Physiol-08A14 Describe the pathways whereby myocardial ischaemia may be experienced as pain in the throat or arm regions. 21%

Physiol-08A9 The skin, the kidneys, and the carotid bodies are examples of where specific organ blood flow is far in excess of that organ's metabolic requirements. For each example, explain what the physiological role of the high organ blood flow is, why this high flow is an advantage to the person and a brief description of the mechanisms involved. 11%

Physiol-03B9 Describe the effects of tachycardia on myocardial oxygen supply and demand in a normal heart. 40%

Physiol-03A12 Explain the mechanisms that maintain cerebral blood flow on moving from a supine to a standing position. 60%

Physiol-03A10 Describe the factors influencing hepatic blood flow. 55%

Physiol-02B11 Outline the factors that determine coronary vascular resistance 65%

Physiol-99B6 Explain the mechanisms that maintain cerebral blood flow on moving from a supine to a standing position. 51%

Physiol-99A6 Describe the factors influencing hepatic blood flow. 73%

Physiol-97A8 List the determinants of coronary artery blood flow. Briefly compare phasic coronary blood flow in the left and right coronary arteries. 51%

Physiol-96B4 Explain briefly the mechanisms that maintain cerebral blood flow on moving from a supine position to a standing position. 56%

Physiol-95A4 The heart rate of a healthy 20 yr old goes from 55bpm to 130 bpm after receiving atropine IV. Describe the effects of tachycardia on myocardial O2 supply and demand in a normal heart.

Renal Physiology

Physiol-12B10 Outline the mechanisms by which the kidney maintains potassium homeostasis. 27%

Physiol-12A15 Describe the role of the kidneys in excretion of acid. 13%

Physiol-11B15 Outline the physiological changes that may explain why an otherwise well patient may have a reduced urinary output intraoperatively 77%

Physiol-11A11 Describe the functions of the loop of Henle, including the physiological mechanisms involved.

Physiol-10A11 Describe the changes that occur in the urine and the plasma with renal dysfunction. 30%

Physiol-09B13 Explain the physiological processes that cause oliguria in response to hypovolaemic shock. 64%

Physiol-08B16 Outline the mechanisms by which the kidney maintains potassium homeostasis. 51%

Physiol-08A15 Describe how the kidney establishes the medullary concentrating gradient. 71%

Physiol-07B12 Discuss the role of the kidney in regulating potassium homeostasis. 25%

Physiol-07A12 Explain the physiological principles underlying the use of peritoneal dialysis in a patient with chronic renal failure with this dialysate solution. 17%

Na 132 mEq/L Mg 0.5 mEq/L
K 0 mEq/L Lactate 40 mEq/L
Cl 96 mEq/L glucose 2.5 g%
Ca 3.5 mEq/L

Physiol-06B11 List the hormones that regulate tubular reabsorption and describe their action and site of action. 81%

Physiol-06A14 Explain the physiological processes which cause oliguria in response to hypovolaemic shock 38%

Physiol-05B10 Describe the forces acting across the glomerular capillar membrane. Explain how afferent and effferent arteriolar tone affect glomerular filtration rate. 62%

Physiol-04A16 Explain how the kidney handles glucose. Describe the physiological consequences of glycosuria. 57%

Physiol-04A13 Describe the concept of renal clearance and its use to estimate glomerular filtration rate 69%

Physiol-03B14 Outline the role of the kidney in the regulation of body water. 34%

Physiol-03A16 Describe the functions of the loop of Henle, including the physiological mechanisms involved. 64%

Physiol-02A6 Explain the physiological processes which cause oliguria in response to hypovolaemic shock 72%

Physiol-01B6 Explain how the kidney handles glucose. Describe the physiological consequences of glycosuria. 47%

Physiol-00B8 Describe the factors governing glomerular filtration rate 52%

Physiol-00A7 List the hormones that regulate renal tubular reabsorption and describe their action and site of action 70%

Physiol-99B4 Outline the role of the kidneys in the regulation of total body water 66%

Physiol-99A4 Explain how the kidney handles glucose. Describe the physiological consequences of glycosuria. 49%

Physiol-98B1 Describe the concept of renal clearance and its use to estimate glomerular filtration rate 79%

Physiol-98B3 Describe the process of tubuloglomerular feedback. 70%

Physiol-98A5 Describe the factors governing glomerular filtration rate 78%

Physiol-95B2 Explain the physiological processes which cause oliguria in response to hypovolaemic shock 63%

Physiol-95A9 Briefly outline the role of the kidneys in the regulation of body water 21%

Physiol-94A3 Explain the mechanisms involved in sodium handling by the kidney

Neurophysiology

Physiol-11B13 Outline the physiological role of cerebro spinal fluid, including a description of its production and fate. 44%

Physiol-10B14 Discuss the effects on intracranial pressure when a person is placed in a head down tilt. 39%

Physiol-09B14 Outline the central nervous system effects on an awake person breathing air containing carbon dioxide. 42%

Physiol-09A12 Outline the factors contributing to the generation and maintenance of the resting membrane potential. 52% Same as Physiol-02A5 and Physiol-96A4

Physiol-09A9 Discuss the physiological factors that determine intracranial pressure (ICP), and describe how changes in posture affect ICP. 57%

Physiol-08B11 Write brief notes on the physiological changes associated with sleep. 39%

Physiol-08A13 Describe the production of cerebrospinal fluid, its role and its fate. 24%

Physiol-05A10 Write brief notes on the physiological changes associated with sleep. 47%

Physiol-04A15 List the physiological factors that determine intracranial pressure. Explain briefly how intracranial pressure is regulated. 57%

Physiol-03B15 Briefly describe the NMDA (N-methyl d-aspartate) receptor and its physiological role in the central nervous system. 55%

Physiol-02A5 Outline the factors contributing to the generation and maintenance of the resting membrane potential 77%

Physiol-00B6 Briefly discuss the physiological control of intraocular pressure 30%

Physiol-98A8 Briefly describe the NMDA (n-methyl d-aspartate) receptor and its physiological role in the central nervous system. 59%

Physiol-97B3 List the physiological factors which determine intracranial pressure and explain briefly how it is regulated. 61%

Physiol-97A5 What is saltatory conduction and what are the advantages of this type of conduction? 80%

Physiol-96B1 Explain briefly the physiological mechanisms whereby an action potential arriving at a synapse might not be conducted. 22%

Physiol-96A4 Outline the factors contributing to the generation and maintenance of the resting membrane potential.

1996 List the physiological factors which determine intracranial pressure and explain briefly how it is controlled.

Physiol-95B6 List the physiological factors which determine intracranial pressure and briefly explain how it is controlled. 67%

1994 Draw a graph of a nerve action potential and outline its physiological basis

1994 Briefly outline the physiological factors that determine cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) formation

93B1 Discuss the physiological consequences which you would expect to occur during the first few hours of a traumatic section of the spinal cord at the level of C6 assuming no other injuries.

1993 Outline the neuroendocrine functions of the brain

1991 Write short notes on the axonal membrane

1991 Write short notes on cerebrospinal fluid

1990 Write short notes on synaptic transmission

Muscle Physiology

Physiol-11A12 Compare and contrast a single twitch and a tetanic contraction in a skeletal muscle fibre. 25%

Physiol-06B13 Briefly describe the structure of a mammalian skeletal muscle fibre and explain how its structure is related to its contractile function. DO NOT describe excitation-contraction coupling. 35%

Physiol-05B14 Describe the processes of excitation and contraction within smooth muscle cells. 53%

Physiol-04B14 Briefly describe the difference between a single twitch and a tetanic contraction in a skeletal muscle fibre. Include in your answer the physiological basis for the development of a tetanic contraction. 54%

Physiol-01A2 Briefly describe the effect of resting muscle length and load conditions on the tension generated by a skeletal muscle. How do these factors affect the velocity of shortening? 19%

Physiol-00B5 Briefly discuss the relationship between structure and function in skeletal muscle 52%

Physiol-00A4 Briefly describe the difference between a single twitch and a tetanic contraction in a skeletal muscle fibre. Include in your answer the physiological basis for the development of a tetanic contraction. 53%

Physiol-98A3 Briefly describe the structure of a mammalian skeletal muscle fibre and explain how its structure is related to its contractile function. DO NOT describe excitation-contraction coupling. 62%

1993 Briefly discuss the role of calcium in the coupling of electrical and mechanical events in skeletal muscle.

1990 Write short notes on isometric and isotonic muscle contraction

Physiology of Blood & Immune System

Physiol-12B11 Outline the important features of the lymphatic circulation. 10%

Physiol-12A11 Outline the physiology of blood groupings that allows O negative packed cells to be safely transfused to most patients.

Physiol-10A10 Describe how white blood cells defend the body against infection. 40%

Physiol-10A12 Briefly explain the changes that occur in stored whole blood. 41%

Physiol-09B12 Describe the production and function of red blood cells. 48%

Physiol-09B15 Describe the complement system. 57%

Physiol-07B13 What are the physiological reasons making it safe to give O negative blood to patients. 34%

Physiol-07A10 Explain the mechanisms that prevent blood clotting in intact blood vessels (do not draw the clotting cascade). 57%

Physiol-06A11 Briefly outline the role of platelets in haemostasis. 60%

Physiol-05B11 Outline the principles of compatibility testing of blood for transfusion. 75%

Physiol-02B12 Briefly explain the changes that occur in stored whole blood 58%

Physiol-01B7 Explain the main difference between the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of coagulation. 41%

Physiol-00B4 Outline the principles of compatibility testing of allogeneic (homologous) blood for transfusion 27%

Physiol-00A8 Briefly describe the breakdown of haemoglobin after red cell lysis 17%

Physiol-99A2 Explain the mechanisms that prevent blood clotting in intact blood vessels (do not draw the clotting cascade) 42%

Physiol-97B5 Briefly describe the complement system 21%

Physiol-97A6 Briefly outline the role of platelets in haemostasis. 77%

Physiol-95B10 Briefly explain the changes that occur in stored whole blood 40%

Physiol-95A7 Briefly explain the mechanisms that prevent blood clotting in intact blood vessels (do not draw the clotting cascade). 79%

1990 Write short notes on plasma proteins

Endocrine & Metabolic Physiology

Physiol-12B15 Describe the fuel sources used during early and sustained fasting in humans. 63%

Physiol-12A14 Outline the components of parenteral nutrition and explain the rationale for the use of each component.

Physiol-11B16 Describe the formation, fate and role of lactate in energy production. 45%

Physiol-09B11 Describe the role of insulin in fat metabolism. 36%

Physiol-09A15 Describe the formation, fate and role of lactate in energy production. 19%

Physiol-09A10 Describe the physiological effects of the glucocorticoids. 18%

Physiol-08B10 Describe sepsis and describe the metabolic consequences of sepsis. 48%

Physiol-08A11 Outline the physiological consequences of diabetic keto acidosis. 57%

Physiol-07A16 Briefly outline the components of parenteral nutrition, explaining the rationale for the use of each component. 42%

Physiol-06B16 Describe the physiological consequences of acute hypoglycaemia. 57%

Physiol-06B14 Compare and contrast the physiological effects of a six hour fast of fluids and food with a twenty four hour fast in a healthy adult. 33%

Physiol-06A13 Describe the factors which influence metabolic rate 48%

Physiol-04B12 Briefly describe the secretion and functions of renin and angiotensin 48%

Physiol-03A15 Describe the physiological actions of thyroid hormones. 38%

Physiol-02B13 Briefly describe the functions of renin and angiotensin 46%

Physiol-01B3 Describe the fuel sources used during early and sustained fasting in man. 51%

Physiol-00B7 Outline the actions of insulin that affect fat metabolism 28%

Physiol-98A7 Outline the actions of insulin that affect fat metabolism 34%

Physiol-96A5 Compare the effects of a six hour fast from fluids and food with those of a 24 hour fast in a healthy adult.

Physiol-95B8 Outline the physiological consequences of hyperosmolar diabetic ketoacidosis 39%

1994 Outline the physiological effects of bilateral adrenalectomy

Physiol-93A1 Discuss the physiological consequences of preoperative fasting (food and water) for 12 hours in a healthy young adult. Include in the discussion the effects on the body of this food and water deprivation and the physiological mechanisms that compensate for them 44%

1992 Discuss the role of the hypothalamus in physiological control mechanisms.

1992 Write short notes on the thyroid hormones

1990 Write short notes on control of blood glucose concentration

Thermoregulation

Physiol-11A14 Describe the physiological effects of general anaesthesia on temperature regulation.

Physiol-08A10 Define "thermoneutral zone". Briefly explain how the body regulates temperature when the ambient temperature exceeds the thermoneutral zone. 50%

Physiol-03A11 Define the "thermoneutral zone". Briefly explain how the body regulates temperature when the ambient temperature exceeds thermoneutral zone. 38%

Physiol-01A5 Explain briefly the role of the skin in maintaining a normal body temperature 71%

Physiol-97B4 Briefly describe the influence of general anaesthesia on intraoperative temperature regulation. 46%

Physiol-96B2 Explain the role of the skin in maintaining a normal body temperature. 56%

Physiol-96A6 Define thermoneutral zone. Briefly explain how the body regulates temperature when the ambient temperature exceeds the thermoneutral zone.

Physiol-94A1 Discuss temperature regulation in the human, explaining the physics of heat transfer and how physiological control mechanisms reflexly use these to maintain constant core temperature as external temperature changes and insulation is altered. Explain the concept of thermoneutral zone and how this varies with body size.

Physiol-93A3 Give a brief account of the physiological consequences of hypothermia

Maternal, Foetal & Neonatal Physiology

Physiol-12A13 Describe the factors affecting the diffusion of gas at the placenta, including the Bohr and Haldane effects. 50%

Physiol-10B13 Describe the cardiovascular changes in the neonate that occur at birth. 90%

Physiol-09B10 Compare and contrast the neonatal respiratory system with the adult. 36%

Physiol-08A12 Describe the physiological changes that occur in respiratory function during pregnancy. 60%

Physiol-07B14 Describe the cardiovascular changes that occur in the fetus at birth. 35%

Physiol-07A14 Explain the mechanisms whereby oxygen transfer is facilitated at the placenta. 59%

Physiol-02B16 Explain the Bohr and Haldane effects in trans-placental gas exchange (pass:77%)

Physiol-01B4 Describe the physiological changes that occur in respiratory function during pregnancy. 60%

Physiol-01A4 Indicate the sequence of the physiological changes to the fetal circulation at birth and briefly describe the mechanisms which account for these changes. 64%

Physiol-99A1 Explain the Bohr and Haldane effects in trans-placental gas exchange 42%

Physiol-97B8 Indicate the sequence of the physiological changes to the fetal circulation at birth and briefly describe the mechanisms that account for these changes. 46%

Physiol-95A8 Describe the physiological changes that occur in respiratory function during pregnancy and what significance these changes have to anaesthesia. 44%

1990 Write short notes on placental oxygen transfer

Gastrointestinal Physiology

Physiol-12B14 Detail the protective and regulatory roles of the liver. 40%

Physiol-11A15 Describe the functions of the gastric secretions

Physiol-10B16 Outline the clinical laboratory assessment of liver function. 29%

Physiol-09B16 List the gastric cell types and their secretions and the functions of these secretions. 72%

Physiol-09A14 Describe the physiological processes that influence the rate of gastric emptying. 56%

Physiol-08B12 Detail the protective and regulatory roles of the liver. 32%

Physiol-07B15 Discuss how liver function can be assessed by clinical laboratory testing. 19%

Physiol-06A16 What physiological factors contribute to the competence and tone of the lower oesophageal sphincter. 58%

Physiol-05A9 Describe the control of gastric emptying. 45%

Physiol-04B13 Describe the functions of the gastric secretions 45%

Physiol-03B16 Outline the mechanism of secretion of hydrochloric acid by the stomach. Briefly describe how secretion of hydrochloric acid by the stomach is controlled. 61%

Physiol-02B15 Give a brief account of the mechanisms which regulate gastric secretion.

Physiol-02A8 Describe the physiological factors that contribute to the competence and tone of the lower oesophageal sphincter 42%

Physiol-00A6 Describe the control of gastric emptying 50%

Physiol-99B2 What physiological factors contribute to the competence and tone of the lower oesophageal sphincter. 42%

Physiol-97A4 What factors oppose gastro oesophageal reflux? 35%

1994 Outline the factors determining the rate of flow of bile into the duodenum

Physio-93** Describe the mechanism of swallowing

1991 Write short notes on the biochemical changes associated with pyloric stenosis

1991 Write short notes on bilirubin

1990 Write short notes on the cardiac (lower oesophageal) sphincter

Clinical Measurement

Physiol-12B13 Using an example of exponential decay, define and outline the important features of an exponential function. 36%

Physiol-12A10 Outline the principles of a pneumotachograph. What factors affect the accuracy of this device? 44%

Physiol-11B10 Describe the effects of resonance and damping on an invasive arterial blood pressure tracing 42%

Physiol-11A16 Explain the difference between viscosity and density. Outline the effects of changes in viscosity and density on the flow of gases and liquids.

Physiol-10B11 Explain the physical principles of ultrasound imaging. 57%

Physiol-10A15 Explain how cardiac output is measured using a thermodilution technique. 60%

Physiol-08B9 What is humidity and how can it be measured? 53%

Physiol-07B16 Draw the ECG depicting one cardiac cycle for lead II. Label diagram and give normal values. What is the PR interval and what factors can affect this? 50%

Physiol-07B11 Explain the principles of ultrasound used in medical imaging. 60%

Physiol-07A15 Describe the effects of resonance and damping on an invasive arterial blood pressure tracing. 21%

Physiol-06B12 Explain the difference between viscosity and density. Outline the effects of changes in viscosity and density on the flow of gases and liquids. 47%

Physiol-06A15 Briefly describe the measurement of pH in a blood sample using a pH electrode. 49%

Physiol-05B13 Explain how cardiac output is measured using a thermodilution technique (53% Pass)

Physiol-05A16 Briefly explain the principles of Doppler ultrasound used to measure cardiac output. 52%

Physiol-04B11 Briefly explain how oximetry can be used to estimate the partial pressure of oxygen in a blood sample. 31%

Physiol-04A14 Briefly describe the differences between laminar and turbulent flow. List the factors that increase the probability of turbulent flow. 70%

Physiol-03A13 Briefly describe the principles and sources of error in the measurement of systemic arterial blood pressure using an automated oscillometric non-invasive monitor. 81%

Physiol-02B14 Explain the physical principles of ultrasound imaging 25%

Physiol-02A7 Outline the principles of a pneumotachograph. What factors affect the accuracy of this device? 44%

Physiol-01A3 Briefly describe the measurement of pH in a blood sample using a pH electrode 52%

Physiol-00B2 Briefly describe the principles and sources of error in the measurement of arterial blood pressure using an automated oscillometric non-invasive monitor 70%

Physiol-00A1 Explain how cardiac output is measured using a thermodilution technique 50%

Physiol-99B7 Describe how the partial pressure of oxygen in a blood sample is measured using a Clark electrode. 28%

Physiol-99A5 Differentiate between the terms ‘heat’ and ‘temperature’. Explain briefly the principles of a mercury thermometer, indicating its advantages and disadvantages. 82%

Physiol-99B1 How does a fall in temperature influence blood gas solubility and acid base values? 28%

Physiol-98A6 How does a fall in temperature influence blood gas solubility and acid base values? 21%

Physiol-98B4 Explain the physical principles of ultrasound imaging. 14%

Physiol-98A4 Briefly explain the principles of Doppler ultrasound used to measure cardiac output using echocardiography. 33%

Physiol-97B6 Briefly describe the differences between laminar and turbulent flow. List the factors that increase the probability of turbulent flow. 56%

1996 Briefly describe the measurement of blood pressure using an automated oscillometric non-invasive blood pressure monitor. Briefly outline the problems of this kind of monitor. 50%

1996 Explain briefly the causes of differences between measured end tidal and arterial partial pressures of carbon dioxide.

Physiol-95B7 Briefly differentiate between the terms 'heat' and 'temperature'. Explain briefly the principles of a thermistor indicating its advantages and disadvantages. 40%

Physiol-95A5 Outline the principles of the pneumotachograph. What factors affect the accuracy of this device?

1994 Compare 2 methods of measuring humidity

1993 Briefly discuss the factors which influence the measurement of oxygen saturation using a pulse oximeter

1992 Write short notes on the principles of oscillometry

1992 Write short notes on principles of measurement of end tidal carbon dioxide tension

1991 Write short notes on the ideal properties of a pressure transducer

1991 Write short notes on exponential functions

1991 Write short notes on measurement of acid base disturbances

1990 Write short notes on the measurement of end tidal carbon dioxide

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