Primary MCQs-February 2012

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Primary Physiology Black Bank | Primary Pharmacology Black Bank


  • This page contains PHYSIOLOGY MCQs that were on the February 2012 Primary Exam.
  • For posting/viewing Pharmacology MCQs go to PharmMCQ-Feb2012


Contents

Primary MCQ papers

Feb06 | Jul06 | Feb07 | Jul07 | Feb08 | Jul08 | Mar09 | Jul09 | Mar10 | Jul10 |

Feb11 | Aug11 | Feb12 | Jul12(Physiol) | Jul12(Pharm) | Feb13(Physiol) | Feb13(Pharm) | Feb13(NewExam) | Sep13 | Feb14 |

Aug14 | Feb15 | Aug15 | Feb16 | Aug16 |

Basic Physiology

BP12 Which of the following is not true regarding intracellular organelles:

A. The Endoplasmic reticulum is involved in protein synthesis
B. The Golgi apparatus ..?..
C. ..Maybe an option about gene transcription..?..
D. All cells contain a nucleus
E. ..something true about peroxisome?


BP13 Which of the following is true?

A. Myocardial cells has gap junctions at intercalated disc
B. ?

Fluid and Electrolyte Physiology

FE04 Hyperkalaemia causes which ECG changes?

A. Prolonged QT
B. Disappearance of p wave
C. T wave inversion
D. ST depression
E. ?


FE14 Which ion has the lowest intracellular concentration? *repeat

A. Calcium
B. Phosphate
C. Chloride
D. Bicarbonate
E. Magnesium


FE35 Effects of chronic hypokalaemia (3.0 m M) will cause which ECG changes

A. Flat p waves
B. Flat T waves
C. Cardiac arrest in diastole
D. More prone to arrhythmia than acute hypokalaemia
E. Resting membrane potential will be higher?


FE36 With regards to chloride:

A. Hyperchloraemia leads to decreased plasma HCO3
B. Intracellular concentration is <20mM
C. ?


FE37 A person with undiagnosed adrenal insufficiency will have the following electrolyte profile:

A. Na 122 K 6.2 Cl 72 HCO3 40?
B Various Na, K, HCO3 & Cl combinations

Alt version: Question regarding plasma electrolyte picture in adrenocortical insufficiency

A. Low Na, High K, Low Cl, Low HCO3
B. Low Na, High K, Low Cl, Normal HCO3
C. Low Na, High K, Low Cl, Raised HCO3
D. High Na, Low K...?help

Acid Base Physiology

AD18 The base excess on an arterial blood gas?

A. Assumes a CO2 of 40mmHg
B. Is measured at 20 degrees Centigrade
C. ..Something about titratable acids...
D. Same as plasma bicarbonate
E. Measures respiratory acid base status


AD09 What is the compensation for a person with increased keto-acids?

A. Increased ammonium production I thought it said decreased urinary NH4+ excretion?
B. Hyperventilation to expel non-volatile acids
C. Decreased absorption of bicarbonate
D. Increased intracellular H+ concentration
E. No change in PaCO2?


AD24 Haemoglobin is an effective buffer because:

A. present in large concentrations
B. Has 38 carboxyl residues per globin molecule
C. pKa close to physiological pH
D. deoxyHb is more acidic than oxyHb?
E. Proteins have pKa 6.8


AD27 If PCO2 of 200mmHg, what else would you find?

A. bradycardia
B. hypokalaemia
C. hypocalcaemia
D. hypermagnesimia
E. hyperkalaemia

Respiratory Physiology

RE03 Which has the greatest effect (?increase) on pulmonary vascular resistance

A. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction
B. Hypocarbia
C. Alkalosis
D. Head down tilt


RE06 Apex compared to base of lung

A. Lower ventilation to perfusion ratio
B. Higher perfusion than at the base
C. Higher transmural pressures
D. Intrapleural pressure is less negative


RE57 Regarding lung compliance:

A. Requires a respiratory laboratory to measure
B. dynamic compliance greater than static
C. In healthy individuals main difference between static and dynamic is due to airway resistance
D. units cmH2O/ml


RE69 Most likely cause of hypoxaemia post abdominal surgery?

A. Increased shunt
B. Increased dead space
C. Hypoventilation
D. ?
E. ?


RE70 Anatomic dead space increases

A. supine to erect
B. erect to semi-reclining
C. on intubating the patient
D. when neck is flexed and chin is pushed down


RE71 VO2 max of a sedentary 40 year old male: *repeat*

A. 3 ml/kg/min
B. 11 ml/kg/min
C. 40 ml/kg/min
D. 90 ml/kg/min
E. 250 ml/kg/min

RE73 In a normal healthy 75kg person:

A. Tidal volume is 400ml
B. Intrapleural pressure during tidal breathing is between -5cmH2O to -8cmH2O
C. Alveolar pressure during tidal breathing is between +5cmH2O to -5cmH2O
D. inspiration last 1 second, expiration last 4 secs


RE74 FEF 25-75%

A. Includes the effort dependent part
B. Measured during first half of expiration
C. always related to FEV1
D. fastest / steepest in 1 sec?
E. Increased in COPD


MCQ-feb12-22 Decreased static lung compliance

A. emphysema
B.
C. normal ageing
D. ?
E. decreased elastin fibres


RE75 With regards to blood sampled from the distal lumen of a pulmonary artery catheter (when it is wedged)

A. PO2 will be the equal to mixed venous PO2
B. PO2 will be less than mixed venous PO2
C. PCO2 will be equal to mixed venous PCO2
D. PCO2 will be less than mixed venous PCO2
E. PCO2 will be more than mixed venous PCO2

Cardiovascular Physiology

CV26 During increased intrathoracic pressure of a Valsalva manoeuvre:

A. Decreased cardiac output initially
B. Increase (or decrease afterload)
C. increased BP is due to augmented cardiac output
D. Decreased cardiac output due to decreased right ventricular filling
E. Decreased peripheral vascular resistance


CV53 Baroreceptors found every where EXCEPT:

A. carotid sinus
B. carotid body
C. aortic arch
D. atria
E. ?


CV75 Endothelial cells produce all EXCEPT:

A. TXA2
B. Endothelin
C. Growth factors
D. Prostacyclin
D. NO


CV80 A prolonged PR interval, ST segment flattening, and the appearance of a U-wave is consistent with: *new*

A. Hyperkalaemia.
B. Hypokalaemia.
C. Hypomagneseamia.
D. Hypocalcaemia.
E. None of the above


CV81 The R wave in lead 2 of an ECG corresponds to:

A. Aortic valve opening
B. Just after closure of mitral valve
C. Peak of atrial contraction
D. Start of isovolumetric contraction
E. ?


CV82 All of the following are ion channels in the heart EXCEPT:

A. Inward rectifier K channels
B. Transient inward K channels
C. Delayed rectifier K channels
D. Ca channels
E. Na channels


CV83 The U wave on an ECG represents " (...I dont remember this question at all?)"

A.Atrial repolarisation
B.Atrial and ventricular repolarisation
C.Some electrolyte abnormality (can't remember which electrolyte/s it had)


CV84 Comparing the aorta and the radial artery

A. MAP higher in aorta
B. Dicrotic notch more pronounced in radial artery
C. Systolic pressure higher in aorta
D. Diastolic pressure higher in aorta
E. Faster systolic peak in radial


CV85 Effects of long term exercise:

A. Increased maximal heart rate
B. Increased stroke volume
C. Decreased muscle capillaries
D. Decrease muscle blood flow for the same level of work (? Maybe worded like this)
E. increased lactate production for same amount of work


CV86 Lead II of an ECG

A. PR interval <0.12 seconds
B. Q waves may or may not be pathological
C. Needs 3 electrodes to record
D. Positive electrode on left arm, negative electrode on right arm

Renal Physiology

MCQ-feb12-37 Action of PTH:

A. Increase Ca and phosphate in PCT, DCT and CD (all different combos of increase and decrease absorption as well as section of nephron).
B. Increased Ca reabsorption and increased phosphate reabsorption ?
C. Increased ca reabsorption and decreased phosphte reabsorption ?
D. Decreased Ca reabsorption and increased phosphate reabsorption ?
E. Increased ca reabsorption and decreased phosphte reabsorption ?


MCQ-feb12-38 Sympathetic stimulation of the kidney cause?

A. Renin release to decrease
B. Efferent constriction to increase GFR
C. Decrease renal blood flow


MCQ-feb12-39 Factors contributing to the medullary concentration gradient.

A. Some urea passively reabsorption in CD
B. Active transport of Na/Cl into the lumen of the ALOH
C. ?H20 diffusion into medulla


MCQ-feb12-40 Why is urea not a good marker of ?GFR. Or renal function?

A. Because it is actively reabsorbed in the PCT.
B. Something active transport of NaCl into vasa recta.
C. Because its reabsoprtion is under the influence of ADH
D. Active reabsorption in LoH


KD02 Which substance has the highest renal clearance?

A. Insulin
B. PAH
C. creatinine
D. urea
E. glucose


MCQ-feb12-42  ? a question about blood supply being less to the medulla. Also involved the vasa recta

A. ?
B. ?
C.

MCQ-feb12-43 Effects of surgical removal of one kidney:

A. Decreased renal blood flow by half
B. Decreased glomerular filtration rate by half
C. Increased concentrating capacity of the other kidney
D. Decreased urine volume?
E. None of the above


GI Physiology

GI23 Blood supply to the liver:

A. Half from portal vein and half from hepatic
B. Oxygen is supplied by both portal vein and hepatic artery.
C. Pressure in portal vein is 5mmHg
D. Pressure in hepatic artery is 10mmHg
E. 35% of cardiac output


GI16 Comparing the small and large intestine

A. bacteria load reduced in small because of gastric acidity and fast transit
B. Main function of bacteria is to break down urea
C. Immune defense is via cell mediated immunity and secretion of IgA
D. ?

Blood and Immunology

BL31 *new Regarding plasma proteins:

A. Difference between total protein and albumin concentration is accounted by immunoglobulins
B. Low albumin is always associated with liver disease
C. most in anionic form
D. ?


BL32 Which of the following is not true with regards to hypersensitivity reactions:

A. Type I hypersensitivity is mediated by IgE
B. Type I hypersensitivity does not involve complements
C. Type II hypersensitivity does not involve IgM/IgG
D. Always involve T Cells


BL33 What changes can be found in stored blood at Day 28?

A. pH less than 7.0
B. K level rises to 10mM
C. 2,3 DPG stays constant
D. Decreased free Hb
E. Increased glucose concentration

Endocrine and Metabolism

ED23 Respiratory quotient is decreased in sepsis due to?

A. Increased fat metabolism
B. ?
C. ?
D. Increased lactate production
E. Fever


MCQ-feb12-48 Which is NOT an effect of insulin?

A. Increased b oxidation of fat
B. Increased GLUT transporter
C. Increased synthesis of TAG from FFA


MCQ-feb12-50 Regarding iron absorption and its metabolism?

A. Four iron molecules are bound to apoferritin in the lumen of the small intestine
B. There are .... iron molecules bound to transferrin.
C. It is stored as ferritin???
D. Absorption is increased in acidic environment?


ED33 MCQ-12-51 Which of the following is not true for someone with very high levels of aldosterone?

A. Acidosis
B. Alkalosis
C. Natriuresis due to increased MAP
D. Increased K+ pumping into the cell


ED33 MCQ-feb12-52 Calcium aids parathormone(PTH):

A. increased absorption phosphate from GIT
B. increased bone resorption??


MCQ-feb12-53 Erythropoeitin? (repeat)

A. ?
B. ?
C. ?

Neurophysiology

NU12 Nernst equation: RMP = 6.1 + log [outside]/[inside]?? Some three letter acronym means what.

A. units are mcV
B. measured at 20 degrees C
C. if a negative ion, will be positive
D. calculates the potential inside the cell
E. can be calculated for an ion of any valency

See also: NU01


NU13 Duration of a typical Action potential of a large nerve fibre

A. 0.4msec
B. 0.04msecs
C. 4msecs
D. 40mses
E. 400msec


MCQ-feb12-55 CSF versus plasma

A. HCO3 80%
B. Cl 80%
C. glucose 40%
D. potassium 60%
E. Na 80% ?


MCQ-feb12-56 Where are GABAc receptors located

A. spinal cord
B. brain
C. retina
D. cerebellum
E. ?

Muscle and NMJ Physiology

MCQ-feb12-57 With regards to nicotinic NMJ (repeat)

A. Random quanta release occurs at rest
B. Hypomagnesaemia increases quantal release of ACh
C. Hypocalaemia incrases quantal release of ACh
D. Minature end plate potentials of 5mV are recorded


MU19 Immediate source of energy

A. Is ATP in all muscle types
B. Is creatine in smooth muscle, ATP in skeletal and cardiac muscle.
C. Is creatine in skeletal muscle, and ATP in cardiac and smooth muscle
D. Is creatine in all muscle types


MCQ-feb12-59 Isometric skeletal muscle contraction:

A. Decreased TPR
B. Increased SBP, decreased DBP
C. Reflex mediated decrease in TPR
D. Progressive decrease in SV
E. Immediate tachycardia due to sympathetic stimulation


MCQ-feb12-60 With regards to skeletal muscle cells:

A. Does not contain mitochondria
B. Does not have nucleus
C. Length of cells is generally same as the whole muscle
D. A sarcomere is as long as the cell
E. A myofibril spans the length of a cell??


MCQ-feb12-61 Effect of ?Ach on non-sphincteric duodenal smooth muscle?

A. ?
B. ?
C. ?

Maternal, Fetal and Neonatal Physiology

MF03 Closure of the ductus arteriosus occurs because?

A. Decreased prostaglandins
B. Increased PaO2
C. Higher pressure in the aorta than in the pulmonary artery (I think it was worded as such)


MF05 Brown fat metabolism - mechanism of action?

A. Autonomically mediated metabolism
B. Uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation outside mitochondria.
C. Produces large amounts of ATP and heat
D. Something about insulation of neck vessels


MCQ-feb12-63 Compared to normal, pregnancy at term

A. Causes a decrease in TPR by 10%
B. Causes an increase in peripheral vascular resistance by 10%
C. Increase cardiac output 40%
D. Stroke volume unchanged


MCQ-feb12-64 The neonate has an increased chest wall compliance and thus the elastic recoil of the lung is relatively unopposed. What is the consequence of this?

A. Decreased resting FRC.
B. Increased work of breathing
C. Decreased specific compliance
D. ?


MCQ-feb12-65 Highest oxygen concentration in a neonate (or fetus?)

A. Ductus arteriosus
B. Ductus venosus
C. Umbilical artery
D. Aorta
E. Left atrium

Clinical Measurement

MCQ-feb12-66 Laminar flow:

A. More likely if Reynolds number >3000
B. Proportional to square root of pressure difference
C. Proportional to radius to the power of 4?
D. Breathing heliox promotes laminar flow because viscosity is less?


MCQ-feb12-67 Which ONE of the following is true about resistance?

A. for resistors in series total resistance is the sum of individual resistances
B. for resistors in parallel total resistance is the sum of reciprocols of the individual resistances
C. ?


MCQ-feb12-68 All of the following pressures are equivalent EXCEPT: *repeat*

A. 100 000 N/m2
B. 102 cmH20
C. 1 atm
D. 760 mmHg
E. 100 kPa


CM40 Henry's law states:

A. The amount of gas dissolved is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gases above it.
B. ?
C. ?
D. ?
E. ?

MCQ-feb12-70 Absolute humidity

A. Units are g/m3
B. Can be measured with a wet/dry bulb
C. Absolute humidity = actual vapour pressure / saturated vapour pressure
D. Can be measured with a hair hygrometer
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